Insect growth is discontinuous, at least for the sclerot-ized cuticular parts of the body, because the rigid cuticle limits expansion. Size increase is by molting - the periodic formation of new cuticle of greater surface area - and subsequent ecdysis, the shedding of the old cuticle. Thus, for sclerite-bearing body segments and appendages, increases in body dimensions are confined to the postmolt period immediately after molting, before the cuticle stiffens and hardens (section 2.1). Hence, the sclerotized head capsule of a beetle or moth larva increases in dimensions in a saltatory manner (in major increments) during development, whereas the membranous nature of body cuticle allows the larval body to grow more or less continuously.

Studies concerning insect development involve two components of growth. The first, the molt increment, is the increment in size occurring between one instar (growth stage, or the form of the insect between two successive molts) and the next. Generally, increase in size is measured as the increase in a single dimension (length or width) of some sclerotized body part, rather than a weight increment, which may be misleading because of variability in food or water intake. The

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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