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A. m. mellifera

remain as to the boundaries around groups, with "splitters" recognizing a greater number of groups and "lumpers" favoring broader categories. For example, some North American taxonomists group ("lump") the alderflies, dobsonflies, snakeflies, and lacewings into one order, the Neuroptera, whereas others, including ourselves, "split" the group and recognize three separate (but clearly closely related) orders, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, and a more narrowly defined Neuroptera (Fig. 7.2). The order Hemiptera sometimes was divided into two orders, Homoptera and Heteroptera, but the homopteran grouping is invalid (non-monophyletic) and we advocate a different classification for these bugs shown in Fig. 7.6 and discussed in section 7.4.2 and Taxobox 20 at the end of the book. New data and methods of analysis are further causes of instability in the recognition of insect orders. As we show in Chapter 7, two groups (termites and parasitic lice) previously treated as orders, belong within each of two other orders and thus the ordinal count is reduced by two.

In this book we recognize 28 orders for which relationships are considered in section 7.4, and the physical characteristics and biologies of their constituent taxa are described in taxoboxes in the section at the end of the book. A summary of the diagnostic features of all 28 orders and a few subgroups, plus cross references to fuller identificatory and ecological information, appear in tabular form in the reference guide to orders in the Appendix (placed after the Index).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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