Plate 3

3.1 A female katydid of an undescribed species of Austrosalomona (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), from northern Australia, with a large spermatophore attached to her genital opening (refer to Box 5.2) (D.C.F. Rentz).

3.2 Pupa of a Christmas beetle, Anoplognathus sp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), removed from its pupation site in the soil in Canberra, Australia (P.J. Gullan).

3.3 Egg mass of Tenodera australasiae (Mantodea: Mantidae) with young mantid nymphs emerging, from Queensland, Australia (refer to Box 13.2) (D.C.F. Rentz).

3.4 Eclosing (molting) adult katydid of an Elephantodeta species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), from the Northern Territory, Australia (D.C.F. Rentz).

3.5 Overwintering monarch butterflies, Danausplexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), from Mill Valley in California, USA (D.C.F. Rentz).

3.6 A fossilized worker ant of Pseudomyrmex oryctus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Dominican amber from the Oligocene or Miocene (P.S. Ward).

3.7 A diversity of flies (Diptera), including calliphorids, are attracted to the odor of this Australian phalloid fungus, Anthurus archeri, which produces a foul-smelling slime containing spores that are consumed by the flies and distributed after passing through the insects' guts

Plate 4

4.1 A tree trunk and under-branch covered in silk galleries of the webspinner Antipaluria urichi (Embiidina: Clothodidae), from Trinidad (refer to Box 9.5) (J.S. Edgerly-Rooks).

4.2 A female webspinner of Antipaluria urichi defending the entrance of her gallery from an approaching male, from Trinidad (J.S. Edgerly-Rooks).

4.3 An adult stonefly, Neoperla edmundsi (Plecoptera: Perlidae), from Brunei, Borneo (P.J. Gullan).

4.4 A female thynnine wasp of Zaspilothynnus trilobatus (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae) (on the right) compared with the flower of the sexually deceptive orchid Drakaea glyptodon, which attracts pollinating male wasps by mimicking the female wasp (see p. 282) (R. Peakall).

4.5 A male thynnine wasp of Neozeloboria cryptoides (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae) attempting to copulate with the sexually deceptive orchid Chiloglottis trapeziformis (R. Peakall).

4.6 Pollination of mango flowers by a flesh fly, Australopierretia australis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in northern Australia (D.L. Anderson).

4.7 The wingless adult female of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), from New Jersey, USA (D.C.F. Rentz).

Plate 5

5.1 Mealybugs of an undescribed Planococcus species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on an Acacia stem attended by ants of a Polyrhachis species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), coastal Western Australia (P.J. Gullan).

5.2 A camouflaged late-instar caterpillar of Plesanemma fucata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on a eucalypt leaf in eastern Australia (P.J. Gullan).

5.3 A female of the scorpionfly Panorpa communis (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) from the UK (P.H. Ward).

5.4 The huge queen termite (approximately 7.5 cm long) of Odontotermes transvaalensis (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) surrounded by her king (mid front), soldiers, and workers, from the Transvaal in South Africa (J.A.L. Watson).

5.5 A parasitic Varroa mite (see p. 320) on a pupa of the bee Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a hive from Irian Jaya, New Guinea (D.L. Anderson).

5.6 An adult moth of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) emitting defensive froth containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids that it sequesters as a larva from its food plants, legumes of the genus Crotalaria (T. Eisner).

5.7 A snake-mimicking caterpillar of the spicebush swallowtail, Papilio troilus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), from New Jersey, USA (D.C.F. Rentz).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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