Order Collembola springtails see also Taxobox

Collembolans are minute to small and soft bodied, often with rudimentary eyes or ocelli. The antennae are four- to six-segmented. The mouthparts are entognathous, consisting predominantly of elongate maxillae and mandibles enclosed by lateral folds of head, and lacking maxillary and labial palps. The legs are four-segmented. The abdomen is six-segmented with a sucker-like ventral tube or collophore, a retaining hook and a furcula (forked jumping organ) on segments 1, 3, and 4, respectively. A gonopore is present on segment 5, the anus on segment 6. Cerci are absent. Larval development is epimorphic; that is, with segment number constant through development. Collembola either form the sister group to Protura in a grouping called Ellipura or, more likely, form the sister group to the Diplura + Protura (the Nonoculata).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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