Order Protura proturans see also Taxobox

Proturans are small, delicate, elongate, mostly unpigmented hexapods, lacking eyes and antennae, with entognathous mouthparts consisting of slender mandibles and maxillae that slightly protrude from the mouth cavity. Maxillary and labial palps are present. The thorax is poorly differentiated from the 12-segmented abdomen. Legs are five-segmented. A gonopore lies between segments 11 and 12, and the anus is terminal. Cerci are absent. Larval development is anamorphic, that is with segments added posteriorly during development. Protura either is sister to Collembola, forming Ellipura in a weakly supported relationship based on some morphological features, or more likely, is sister to the Diplura in a group called Nonoculata based on rRNA gene data, the absence of eyes, and Malpighian tubules either reduced to short papillae or absent.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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