Preface And Acknowledgments For First Edition

Insects are extremely successful animals and they affect many aspects of our lives, despite their small size. All kinds of natural and modified, terrestrial and aquatic, ecosystems support communities of insects that present a bewildering variety of life-styles, forms and functions. Entomology covers not only the classification, evolutionary relationships and natural history of insects, but also how they interact with each other and the environment. The effects of insects on us, our crops and domestic stock, and how insect activities (both deleterious and beneficial) might be modified or controlled, are amongst the concerns of entomologists.

The recent high profile of biodiversity as a scientific issue is leading to increasing interest in insects because of their astonishingly high diversity. Some calculations suggest that the species richness of insects is so great that, to a near approximation, all organisms can be considered to be insects. Students of biodiversity need to be versed in entomology.

We, the authors, are systematic entomologists teaching and researching insect identification, distribution, evolution and ecology. Our study insects belong to two groups - scale insects and midges - and we make no apologies for using these, our favourite organisms, to illustrate some points in this book.

This book is not an identification guide, but addresses entomological issues of a more general nature. We commence with the significance of insects, their internal and external structure, and how they sense their environment, followed by their modes of reproduction and development. Succeeding chapters are based on major themes in insect biology, namely the ecology of ground-dwelling, aquatic and plant-feeding insects, and the behaviours of sociality, predation and parasitism, and defence. Finally, aspects of medical and veterinary entomology and the management of insect pests are considered.

Those to whom this book is addressed, namely students contemplating entomology as a career, or studying insects as a subsidiary to specialized disciplines such as agricultural science, forestry, medicine or veterinary science, ought to know something about insect systematics - this is the framework for scientific observations. However, we depart from the traditional order-by-order systematic arrangement seen in many entomological textbooks. The systematics of each insect order are presented in a separate section following the ecological-behavioural chapter appropriate to the predominant biology of the order. We have attempted to keep a phylogenetic perspective throughout, and one complete chapter is devoted to insect phylogeny, including examination of the evolution of several key features.

We believe that a picture is worth a thousand words. All illustrations were drawn by Karina Hansen McInnes, who holds an Honours degree in Zoology from the Australian National University, Canberra. We are delighted with her artwork and are grateful for her hours of effort, attention to detail and skill in depicting the essence of the many subjects that are figured in the following pages. Thank you Karina.

This book would still be on the computer without the efforts of John Trueman, who job-shared with Penny in second semester 1992. John delivered invertebrate zoology lectures and ran lab classes while Penny revelled in valuable writing time, free from undergraduate teaching. Aimorn Stewart also assisted Penny by keeping her research activities alive during book xvi

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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