Segmentation And Tagmosis

Metameric segmentation, so distinctive in annelids, is visible only in some unsclerotized larvae (Fig. 2.7a). The segmentation seen in the sclerotized adult or nymphal insect is not directly homologous with that of larval insects, as sclerotization extends beyond each primary segment (Fig. 2.7b,c). Each apparent segment represents an area of sclerotization that commences in front of the fold that demarcates the primary segment and extends almost to the rear of that segment, leaving an unsclerotized area of the primary segment, the conjunctival or intersegmental membrane. This secondary segmentation means that the muscles, which are always inserted on the folds, are attached to solid rather than to soft cuticle. The apparent segments of adult insects, such as on the abdomen, are secondary in origin, but we refer to them simply as segments throughout this text.

In adult and nymphal insects, and hexapods in general, one of the most striking external features is the amalgamation of segments into functional units. This process of tagmosis has given rise to the familiar tagmata (regions) of head, thorax, and abdomen. In this process the 20 original segments have been divided into an embryologically detectable six-segmented head, three-segmented thorax, and 11-segmented abdomen (plus primitively the telson), although varying degrees of fusion mean that the full complement is never visible.

Before discussing the external morphology in more detail, some indication of orientation is required. The bilaterally symmetrical body may be described according to three axes:

Fig. 2.7 Types of body segmentation. (a) Primary segmentation, as seen in soft-bodied larvae of some insects. (b) Simple secondary segmentation. (c) More derived secondary segmentation. (d) Longitudinal section of dorsum of the thorax of winged insects, in which the acrotergites of the second and third segments have enlarged to become the postnota. (After Snodgrass 1935.)

Fig. 2.7 Types of body segmentation. (a) Primary segmentation, as seen in soft-bodied larvae of some insects. (b) Simple secondary segmentation. (c) More derived secondary segmentation. (d) Longitudinal section of dorsum of the thorax of winged insects, in which the acrotergites of the second and third segments have enlarged to become the postnota. (After Snodgrass 1935.)

1 longitudinal, or anterior to posterior, also termed cephalic (head) to caudal (tail);

2 dorsoventral, or dorsal (upper) to ventral (lower);

3 transverse, or lateral (outer) through the longitudinal axis to the opposite lateral (Fig. 2.8).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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