The Circulatory System

Hemolymph, the insect body fluid (with properties and functions as described in section 3.4.1), circulates freely around the internal organs. The pattern of flow is regular between compartments and appendages, assisted by muscular contractions of parts of the body, especially the peristaltic contractions of a longitudinal dorsal vessel, part of which is sometimes called the heart. Hemolymph does not directly contact the cells because the internal organs and the epidermis are covered in a basement membrane, which may regulate the exchange of materials. This open circulatory system has only a few vessels and compartments to direct hemolymph movement, in contrast to the closed network of blood-conducting vessels seen in vertebrates.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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