The female system

The main functions of the female reproductive system are egg production, including the provision of a protective coating in many insects, and the storage of the male's spermatozoa until the eggs are ready to be fertilized. Transport of the spermatozoa to the female's storage organ and their subsequent controlled release requires movement of the spermatozoa, which in some species is known to be mediated by muscular contractions of parts of the female reproductive tract.

The basic components of the female system (Fig. 3.20a) are paired ovaries, which empty their mature oocytes (eggs) via the calyces (singular: calyx) into the lateral oviducts, which unite to form the uric acid ammonia

Fig. 3.19 Molecules of the three common nitrogenous excretory products. The high N/H ratio of uric acid relative to both ammonia and urea means that less water is used for uric acid synthesis (as hydrogen atoms are derived ultimately from water).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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