The Gut Digestion And Nutrition

Insects of different groups consume an astonishing variety of foods, including watery xylem sap (e.g. nymphs of spittle bugs and cicadas), vertebrate blood (e.g. bed bugs and female mosquitoes), dry wood (e.g. some termites), bacteria and algae (e.g. black fly and many caddisfly larvae), and the internal tissues of other insects (e.g. endoparasitic wasp larvae). The diverse range of mouthpart types (section 2.3.1) correlates with the diets of different insects, but gut structure and function also reflect the mechanical properties and the nutrient composition of the food eaten. Four major feeding specializations can be identified depending on whether the food is solid or liquid or of plant or animal origin (Fig. 3.12). Some insect species clearly fall into a single category, but others with generalized diets may fall between two or more of them, and most endopterygotes will occupy different categories at different stages of their life (e.g. moths and butterflies switch from solid-plant as larvae to liquid-plant as adults). Gut morphology and physiology relate to these dietary differences in the following ways. Insects that take solid food typically have a wide, straight, short

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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