Orchid Growing Training Course

Orchids Everything You Need To Know

Here's what you'll discover in Orchids: Everything You Need To Know eBook: Learn these simple orchid watering techniques that the professionals use to have healthy and vibrant orchids (that last all year round) and how you too can easily water orchids correctly with these 3 simple techniques. Discover some simple ways to easily create the exact orchid environment (without breaking your wallet) just by using 3 little known, yet simple orchid care strategies. Find out the correct orchid medium that these plants will thrive in (instead of using regular potting soil that can potentially harm or kill your orchids) and how you can easily avoid making this basic mistake. Are your orchid plants receiving the correct amount of light that is needed for optimum growth? Use this simple technique that will allow the proper supply of light to be absorbed by your plants (without causing sun burn on your orchid leaves and damaging your plant).

Orchids Everything You Need To Know Summary


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Author: Carl Harrison
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Orchid Care Tips

The Internet's Original Orchid Growing Training Course. Discover the #1 most important step you should take to keep your orchid plants healthy, brilliant and insect-free. How do you know if your orchid plant it truly dead or just in a dormant state preparing to bloom again for you? Youll find out in our free course! A simple, easy method for knowing exactly when its time for repotting your orchids and giving them the best orchid propagation chances possible. Heres Just a Small Sampling of What Youll Discover in this Amazing Resource: Discover the common mistake everyone makes about epiphytic orchids and how to avoid it! Discover the 3 capacities of the labellum and why they are critical to your orchids survival. Learn the amazing prediction Darwin made about Xanthopan morgani praedicta. Here are 3 simple ways to insect-proof your greenhouse. When your orchid has exhausted its compost these 3 signs appear. Think all orchids offer nectar to insects? Find out why this common misconception is false and the Real trait all orchids share. These are the 7 crucial, life-giving minerals your orchid needs to survive. Learn why your pods might just contain over 186,300 seeds for propagation! Ever find your orchid blushing violently and then wilting? Put an end to it once you read page 4. Having problems feeding your epiphyte? This very special technique will solve your problems once and for all. Got Pests? Diseases? Spotted Flowers? This might be the silent killer youre facing. Learn the light trick and find out if your orchids Really have no more buds. How to tell the difference between monopodial and sympodial groups (and why the difference is important to your future as an orchid grower.)

Orchid Care Tips Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Mary Ann Berdak
Official Website: www.orchidsecretsrevealed.com
Price: $19.97

Complete Orchid Fertilizers Homemade Recipes

John Perez shares with you 50 years of major experiences, never told methods and Instantly Valuable recipes that brought him a Complete Triumph! You'll discover how to unlock your orchids' full potential. Youll know exactly how to feed your orchids to quickly, easily and inexpensively get (force) astonishing results. When you discover John's exclusive Complete Orchid Fertilizer that Safely increases orchid's growth rate up to 250%. You know how to skyrocket your orchids up to new mind-blowing levels of beauty and value.

Complete Orchid Fertilizers Homemade Recipes Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: John Perez
Official Website: ww17.getmatureorchids.com
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Insects In Popular Culture And Commerce

In Asia, particularly in Malaysia, there is interest in rearing, exhibiting, and trading in mantises (Mantodea), including orchid mantises (Hymenopus species see sections 13.1.1 and 14.1) and stick-insects (Phas-matodea). Hissing cockroaches from Madagascar and burrowing cockroaches from tropical Australia are reared readily in captivity and can be kept as domestic pets as well as being displayed in insect zoos in which handling the exhibits is encouraged.

Evolution Of Mutualism

For each mutualist, the interaction has both a benefit and a cost. Legumes, for example, obtain nitrogen from rhizobia, but expend energy and materials on the symbionts. Excessive growth of the rhizobia would reduce the plant's growth to the point of diminishing its fitness. Likewise, excessive proliferation of mitochondria or plastids, which originated as symbiotic bacteria, would reduce the fitness of the eukaryotic cell or organism that carries them. Thus, selection will always favor protective mechanisms to prevent overexploitation by an organism's mutualist. Whether selection on a mutualist favors restraint depends on how much an individual's fitness depends on the fitness of its individual host. When a mutualist can readily move from one host to another, as pollinating insects can from plant to plant, it does not suffer from the reproductive failure of any one host, and selfishness or overexploitation may be favored. For example, many pollinating insects cheat. The larvae of...

The Remaining Endopterygote Orders

The subfamily APINAE, a cosmopolitan group of about 1000 species, includes all of the highly social bees and a few neotropical solitary species. The subfamily includes orchid bees (tribe EUGLOSSINI), bumble bees (BOMBINI), honey bees (APINI), and stingless bees (MELIPONINI). Orchid bees are neotropical, mostly solitary species, males of which are pollinators of many orchid species. Bumble bees (Figure 10.36F) are common, large, hairy bees, found mainly in the holarctic region. The social organization of bumblebees is primitive, and workers frequently differ from the queen only in size. They do not construct a true comb but rear larvae in pots. Often, these are sealed off after egg laying, and only older larvae are fed regularly. Only the queen overwinters, and new nests are produced annually. Some female Bombini (Psithyrus spp., cuckoo bumble bees) lay their eggs in the nests of other bumble bees, occasionally killing the host queen but more often living side by side. Bumble bee...

Biological control in the hobby greenhouse

The collection of plant species grown in a hobby greenhouse might be very specialized, such as orchids, cactus, or palms, or a bit more generalized, such as tropicals from a variety of plant families, or very eclectic, including both ornamental and food plants. Some hobby greenhouses are used primarily to start bedding or vegetable plants to be set out into the garden in spring.The nature of the plant collection may impact the success of biological control. More specialized pests may occur in specialized plant collections, and these pests may not have been researched for their biological control potential, or appropriate natural enemies may not be commercially available.Therefore, some pests may require other approaches that can vary from hand removal to the use of conventional pesticides. As with pests in any crop or situation, the first step in determining control options is to correctly identify the pest.Your local county or state university Extension service should be able to help...

Box 43 Reception of communication molecules

Aphrodisiacs Danaus

A novel use of allomones occurs in certain orchids, whose flowers produce similar odors to female sex pheromone of the wasp or bee species that acts as their specific pollinator. Male wasps or bees are deceived by this chemical mimicry and also by the color and shape of the flower (see Plates 4.4 & 4.5), with which they attempt to copulate (section 11.3.1). Thus the orchid's odor acts as an allomone beneficial to the plant by attracting its specific pollinator, whereas the effect on the male insects is near neutral - at most they waste time and effort.

Box 42 Reception of communication molecules

Moth Releasing Pheromones Diagram

A novel use of allomones occurs in certain orchids, whose flowers produce similar odors to female sex pheromone of the wasp or bee species that acts as their specific pollinator. Male wasps or bees are deceived by this chemical mimicry and also by the color and shape of the flower, with which they attempt to copulate (section 11.3.1). Thus the orchid's odor acts as an allomone beneficial to the plant by attracting its specific pollinator, whereas the effect on the male insects is near neutral at most they waste time and effort.

When the ants will wake up

Outside the extreme north, ants pollinate plants only exceptionally, since they are inefficient or they possess glands, which kill the pollen. Their dispersing capacity is almost nil. There are, however pollinating ants in Australia, and there they pollinate orchids by pseudo-copulation (see Chapter 26. Love match ). Those ants don't have pollen killing glands, and flowers and insects are perfectly adapted to each other.


4.4 A female thynnine wasp of Zaspilothynnus trilobatus (Hymenoptera Tiphiidae) (on the right) compared with the flower of the sexually deceptive orchid Drakaea glyptodon, which attracts pollinating male wasps by mimicking the female wasp (see p. 282) (R. Peakall). 4.5 A male thynnine wasp of Neozeloboria cryptoides (Hymenoptera Tiphiidae) attempting to copulate with the sexually deceptive orchid Chiloglottis trapeziformis (R. Peakall).

Dances With Plants

From a plant's point of view, pollination is an example of a positive interaction with insects. Plants produce flowers with nectar and more pollen than they need to reproduce to attract insects. Flowers are like brightly colored, sweet-smelling road signs that encourage insect pollinators to stop and visit. These pollinators either accidentally or purposefully collect pollen from the flower. Many flowers depend on bees, flies, beetles, and thrips to carry their pollen from one flower to another so their seeds will develop. Some species of orchids rely on specific insects to pollinate them. In fact, the flowers of some species mimic female wasps. Male wasps pollinate the flowers as they attempt to mate with the flower. This very special type of interaction between a plant and an insect is another example of coevolution.

Omnipresent Ants

In frigid areas of Alaska and north Canada they are plant feeders, and help in pollinating flowers. Away from these extreme north areas, they may derive their nourishment from plants, but they do not act as pollinating agents, as they possess glands, which kill pollens (Jolivet, 1991). However, they are known to pollinate orchids in Australia. Ants have not been found so far in Greenland, but they may be discovered in future. According to the high altitude expert M. S. Mani (1974), the common high altitude ants are species of Formica, Cataglyphis and Campono-tus. He collected Formica picea at the height of 4800 m on the north-west Himalayas.


Many orchid flowers exhibit floral adaptations for pollination to an extreme degree (Darwin 1890, Van der Pijl and Dod-son 1966, Williams 1982). The lip petal of the Colombian orchid Masdevallia bella has a gill-like, fleshy appearance exactly like the underside of a mushroom and is pollinated by fungus gnats. The latter ostensibly visit the flower as they would in search of an oviposition site in their normal mushroom hosts. Several orchid species attract male euglossine bees, providing them with oily, fragrant substances used in the bee's courtship, in return for securing their services as pollinators (see orchid bees, chap. 12). Coryanthes, or bucket orchid flowers, Scents emitted by flowers are not always sweet. Many members of the orchid subtribe Pleurothallideae (Orchidaceae) and the genera Dracontium (Araceae), Sterculia, and Herrania (Sterculiaceae) attract carrion flies with putrescent odors.

Hymenopus coronatus

Orchid mantids eat any small insect or spider they can catch. ( Ray Coleman Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Orchid mantids and people This is a popular species among insect hobbyists, people who enjoy the challenge of raising interesting and unusual insects.

Insects on fronds

In South East Asia, Lilioceris, normally a Liliaceae feeder, frequents also local cycads. In New-Guinea, Szent-Iwany et al. (1956) has been the first to mention Lilioceris clarki (Baly) on the new fronds of Cycas circinnalis. Later on, Hawkeswood (1992) recorded Lilioceris nigripes (Fabricius) in Queensland on the forest dwelling species Bowenia spectabilis Hook, a Zamiaceae. There were similar captures in Vietnam, and Shepard (1997) has reported an undetermined species of Lilioceris on the fronds of Cycas siamensis Miquel in Thailand in a Dipterocarpus forest. Larvae were localized under leaflets, and were browsing the abaxial epidermis and a part of the mesophyll. These larvae, as also the adults, were red, very prominent over the dark greeen foliage. Cycas celebica Braun, the unique and rare cycad in New Caledonia, does not seem to harbour any criocerine, and the local beetles of this leaf beetle subfamily have been captured there on orchids only.

Ecological Role

Chalcid wasps have a remarkable association (Frost 1959, Baker 1961, Galil 1977, Janzen 1979, Wiebes 1979). Orchid species have developed floral color, form, and fragrance that allow these flowers to interject themselves into the life cycle of their pollinators to accomplish their fertilization (Dodson 1975).


Sowbugs are crustaceans, related more closely to crayfish and crabs than to insects.They are common throughout North America, although they came from Europe originally.When disturbed they tend to curl up into a ball.They are mainly scavengers feeding on decaying vegetation, rotting wood, manure, and soil arthropods. Sowbugs also feed on the roots and leaves of plants.They will feed on almost all greenhouse plants, but cause problems especially on orchids.

Extrafloral nectar

They are found in virtually all plant types including herbs, vines, shrubs, and trees annuals as well as perennials successional as well as climax species (Koptur 1992 Whitman 1996). While extrafloral nectar plants are most abundant in the tropics (Zimmerman 1932), they also occur in the temperate zones (Koptur 1992). Extrafloral nectaries are not restricted to one part of the plant, but can be found on various vegetative parts, as well as on flowers and fruiting structures (Bentley 1977a Koptur 1992). The often copious nectar volume secreted by extrafloral nectaries may exceed floral nectar production markedly. Individual leaves of Ricinus communis excrete 3.6 mg of sugar per day, representing 1 o of the leaf's daily assimilate production (Wackers et al. 2001). Bracteal nectaries of Gossypium hirsutum excrete up to 12 mg of highly concentrated nectar per fruit per day (Wackers and Bonifay 2004). One hectare of cotton represents a daily production of 3.8...


Other Sciaridae The larvae of Sciara militaris and S. thomae have the habit of aggregating and moving together in large numbers, probably a result of females depositing numerous eggs at one time in one location. When larvae are full-grown and ready to pupate, the aggregation may move together in a long column (snakeworm, armyworm) over the ground. Mass movements have been described that were 8-10 cm wide and 2-3 m long. The larvae crawl over each other so that the column advances about 25 cm min. Species that are recorded as pests of commercial mushrooms, and may also occur in buildings close to these sites, include Lycoriella solani, L. auripila, L. agarici, and Bradysia brunnipes. Several species of Bradysia,including B. amoena,and Lycoriella infestgreenhouses, and Plastosciara perniciosa larvae damage greenhouse crops, and they have been reported from decaying peatused as the lining of an old safe. B. tritici is known as the moss fly by orchid growers. Numerous species have been...

Soft scales

The soft scales are the more important of the two groups of scales found in greenhouses. A wide variety of the flowering and foliage ornamentals, from orchids to ferns, are good hosts for soft scales.The brown soft scale attacks a broad range of hosts, while the black scale prefers woody plants.The hemispherical scale favors ferns, asparagus fern, schefflera, and many nonwoody evergreen plants. Plants in the family Acanthaceae, such as Crossandra and the zebra plant (Aphelandra squarrosa), are especially susceptible to the hemispherical scale. Another common greenhouse species is nigra scale.Woody plants such as weeping fig, citrus, ivy, and holly are common hosts. The natural enemies described above can control some soft scales in certain situations. Parasitic encyrtid wasps, especially Metaphycus helvolus,have been particularly effective. M.helvolus works well against hemispherical scale and has provided control of black scale in several parts of the world, but it does not reduce...