Organic Farming Manual

Miracle Farm Blueprint

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Miracle Farm Blueprint Overview

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Links To Ipm Systems Development

The advent of the World Wide Web has had a major influence on accessibility to basic information on agricultural entomology. Most major agricultural research centers have developed Web pages that organize information and make it available to students worldwide. More importantly, the dynamic nature of the Web offers the opportunity to provide weather-driven modeling capabilities that greatly increase the scope and applicability of studies about the phenology and population dynamics of major pest organisms. Two sites that offer such capabilities are http www.orst.edu Dept IPPC wea and http www.ipm.ucdavis.edu PHENOLOGY models.html.

Genetic Sterilization

Along with the major benefit of eliminating the requirement for irradiation, and thereby the expense, security issues, and damage to the insects associated with this, there are some potential drawbacks with this approach, and with the particular strains described by Gong and colleagues (2005). Mass-release of genetically engineered insects, even of this particularly benign type, will face regulatory hurdles that have not been imposed on the use of irradiation and the products of classical genetics. The present strains require the addition of tetracycline, or a suitable analogue, to the larval diet. Such antibiotics are not normally used in Mediterranean fruit fly mass-rearing, but chlortetracycline is a component of the standard diet used for mass-rearing pink boll-worm. It is also a component of the liquid diets being developed for Mediterranean fruit fly mass-rearing by the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), so the use of

The Species Of Cinarella

Dilachnus formosanus Takahashi, 1924 73-74. Type, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute Taiwan 'Formosa', Taihoko, Shinten, Pinus sp., 13.x.1923, attacking the shoot. I'animetus piniformosanus (Takahashi) Takahashi, 1928 28 nec 1921. Misidentiiication.J Neochmosis formosanus (Takahashi) Takahashi, 1930 325.

Causes of Pest Outbreaks

In effect, the goals of agricultural intensification are being undermined by pest problems that are now inadvertently the result of that very process. Sustainable agriculture and hence, sustainable pest management required finding solutions to these pest problems which protect the goals of intensification (Thomas and Waage, 1996).

Preface And Acknowledgments For First Edition

Those to whom this book is addressed, namely students contemplating entomology as a career, or studying insects as a subsidiary to specialized disciplines such as agricultural science, forestry, medicine or veterinary science, ought to know something about insect systematics - this is the framework for scientific observations. However, we depart from the traditional order-by-order systematic arrangement seen in many entomological textbooks. The systematics of each insect order are presented in a separate section following the ecological-behavioural chapter appropriate to the predominant biology of the order. We have attempted to keep a phylogenetic perspective throughout, and one complete chapter is devoted to insect phylogeny, including examination of the evolution of several key features.

Brief History of Pest Management

The change from subsistence to commercial agriculture had a major impact on farmers' attitudes to pest control, largely because commercialization introduced the need to borrow or make cash investments which had not been necessary in subsistence agriculture. Insect pest problems caused losses of yield in subsistence agriculture but unless they were catastrophic they did not risk the farmer's livelihood, whereas in commercial agriculture, insect

Degradation and fragmentation of ecosystems

Urbanization has become a major force on insect diversity. Quite simply, wildlands, and even agricultural land, are lost when buildings are erected. This is not to say that urbanization is unchallenged by insect diversity conservation. One of the current major opportunities is to ecologically landscape urban areas so as to maintain biological diversity.

Fate of insecticides in air soil and water

The sources of insecticides in aquatic systems can be quite diverse, from the chemicals being applied directly to control various pests, from runoff from treated agricultural land, from the atmosphere during precipitation, leaks, spillages and improper use of pesticides. Drinking water supplies in the EU should contain no more than 0.1 ig l-1 of a single pesticide and 0.5 Hg l-1 total pesticides while in the USA and Canada maximum limits for pesticides are based on toxicological assessments (Carter and Heather, 1995). Pesticides are present in water which is treated to produce drinking water at concentrations above regulatory limits and conventional water treatment processes have a limited capacity for pesticide removal (Croll, 1995). Soluble insecticides tend to be washed through aquatic systems and cause little harm but less soluble chemicals can bind to suspended particles and accumulate in sediments and become a source of possible future contamination of water (Edwards, 1973,...

Discussion Practical Implications

A further limitation to its use is that, when applied on a regional basis, forecasts are guides to expected strike risk averages. However, the predictions are relatively crude, and for example, take no account of differences in physical factors such as altitude or husbandry factors. Farms geographically close, with a large altitude difference or very different husbandry regimes may have very different levels of strike risk. There is a need to refine the forecasts for more specific circumstances while also keeping the message it delivers simple. Individual farmers whose husbandry differs substantially from the average, for example in their lambing dates or stocking density, will find the generalized information that might be provided by the model relatively less informative for their particular farm. Only a detailed analysis, run at the individual farm level, would be accurate for that particular farmer's husbandry regime. Feedback from some farmers also suggested that they found the...

The Stakeholders in Pest Management

In each case, whether there is the need to shore up a failing strategy, the development of new solutions to pest problems (often products for the agribusinesses which are unsustainable when in widespread use), the need for a greater understanding of a particular pest crop system, it is scientists who benefit, it is science that is required to provide the answers. All this is in the context of a sustained, consistent erosion of the base budget for agricultural research and extension over the last 20 years in the US (Zalom, 1993) and in the UK (Lewis, 1998). Hence, there has been tremendous pressure on research budgets but the public sector scientists have managed to diversify the number of options studied under the umbrella of IPM. The downside has been that with dwindling resources funding agencies at national and international levels have called for collaborative multidisciplinary research programmes where the idea has been to make more effective use of limited resources (Dent,...

Future Challenges and Prospects

Lion female G austeni at the Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute in Tanga to provide the required number of sterile males for the eradication campaign on Unguja Island, Zanzibar (Msangi et al. 2000). In South Africa, first but important steps have been taken to develop a rearing capacity for tsetse, i.e. a thriving seed colony of both species of tsetse has been established at the Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, initial training has been provided to key staff, and serious interest has been expressed by NECSA to provide facilities for the development of a mass-rearing complex. However, the lack of an adequate pool of trained and experienced rearing staff (both senior and at the technician level), and the current lack of funding (both for the refurbishment of the building at NECSA and for the operating costs), remain important bottlenecks that will have to be removed. In addition, consideration needs to be given to the time needed to expand the...

Area Wide Control of Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Ethiopian Experience in the Southern Rift Valley

ABSTRACT In 1997, the Ethiopian Government - assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - initiated a project in the Southern Rift Valley called the Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP). Its long-term objectives are (1) to create a tsetse-free zone in a 25 000 square kilometre area under agricultural development, and (2) to develop adequate national capacity for applying the concept of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component to other parts of the country affected by the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. This project will require consistent commitment and inputs by major stakeholders over a period of at least 15 years. The project was initiated with the collection and evaluation of entomological, veterinary, environmental and socio-economic baseline data which reconfirmed the presence of only one species, i.e. Glossina pallidipes Austen, in the main valley, and the positive socio-economic and...

The Southern Tsetse Eradication Project STEP

The project has the following objectives (1) to establish capacity at national and regional levels for sustainable removal of the T and T constraint by integrating different methods, including the sterile insect technique (SIT), (2) to introduce and apply these techniques on an area-wide basis to remove the T and T constraint from an area of 25 000 square kilometres in the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia, and (3) to create conditions for reducing pressure on highland resources and promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development in the Southern Rift Valley. The project is managed by the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission (ESTC) in close interaction with the authorities of the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR) and the Oromiya Regional State. Additional technical and research support is provided by national and international research institutions and mandated specialized United Nations (UN) agencies. A steering committee, made up of...

Project Activities and Results

Based on the entomological survey and taking into account farming practices and habitat types suitable for livestock keeping, 61 geo-referenced sites were selected to collect parasitological and serological baseline data during the wet season (May-July) of 1999 and the dry season (February-April) of 2000. Blood samples were examined for the presence of trypanosomes using the buffy coat dark ground phase contrast technique (Murray et al. 1977). Sera were also collected for screening using an antibody detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Rebeski et al. 2000) at the Animal Health Research Centre of EIAR at Sebeta. section 3.2.3. Sixty-eight local enumerators, ten supervisors and 15 facilitators, under the supervision of a socio-economist, gathered information from 6754 households using specifically designed questionnaires (Rutebuka 2006). The data confirmed that AAT is a major obstacle for mixed crop-livestock farming systems, with 88 of the 5314 reported cattle deaths...

Researching Management Tactics

Scientists from the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have now assembled a large body of knowledge about the cactus moths' spread in the south-eastern USA (Hight et al. 2002, Sol s et al. 2004), and its behaviour and reproductive biology (Hight et al. 2003). They also have moved quickly to develop trapping protocols and evaluate both natural and synthetic lures (Bloem et al. 2003, 2005a), as well as to evaluate control strategies using different insecticides (Bloem et al. 2005b) and sterile insect releases (Carpenter et al. 2001a,b, Hight et al. 2005).

Research Gaps and Progress to Date

A significant proportion of the mission of the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and USDA-APHIS is directed toward dealing with invasive species and potential emerging pests. USDA-APHIS research and development activities are concentrated on preventing the entry of pests into the USA. However, despite the success of these efforts, many pest species still manage to gain entry and many will become established. While early detection of an invading pest is critical, it is equally important to have a suppression eradication plan in place before the pest becomes established and well before the geographical range of the pest begins to expand. Proactive research programmes are necessary to quickly respond to any breach in our exclusion mechanisms.

Postharvest Phytosanitary Radiation Treatments Less ThanProbit 9 Generic Dose and High Dose Applications

USDA ARS, Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Centre, PO Box 4459, Hilo, Hawaii 96720, USA ABSTRACT With world trade in agricultural commodities increasing, the introduction of exotic insects into new areas where they become pests will increase. Interest in the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for agricultural commodities is growing worldwide, particularly since International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and Codex Alimentarius standards now endorse and facilitate trade based on this disinfestation method. Irradiation is broadly effective against insects and mites at doses that do not compromise quality of most commodities. Unlike other disinfestation techniques, irradiation does not need to kill the pest immediately to provide quarantine security, and therefore live but not viable or sterile insects may occur with the exported commodity making inspection for the target pests redundant. Generic irradiation treatments are being developed to control broad groups of...

Role Of Amateur Entomologists

The first national Canadian entomological society was formed in 1863 by a 25-year-old divinity student, Charles J. S. Bethune, and a 28-year-old pharmacist, William Saunders. They founded its journal, The Canadian Entomologist, in 1868 and were the sole contributors to its first two numbers. Each went on to distinguished careers in Canadian entomology (Bethune as Professor of Entomology and Zoology at Ontario Agricultural College, Saunders as the first Director of Experimental Farms agricultural experiment stations for the Dominion of Canada) but they both had begun the Entomological Society of Canada as amateurs.

Benefit Cost Analysis as a Tool

Alongside the reduction (or elimination) of these costs on the Madeira Islands were added the benefits arising from the opportunities created for organic farming (or integrated pest management), and for preserving the traditional agricultural landscapes. Quantification of these benefits assists ministries of agriculture and European institutions, which finance the preservation of traditional agricultural infrastructures, in establishing whether the SIT is worthwhile. This quantification may also be relevant to environmental organizations, which, in Madeira, advocate the establishment of agricultural reserves.

Funding the Programme

From 1999 to 2003, the Hex River Valley SIT Pilot Project was funded by a combination of government and non-governmental organizations (Barnes et al. 2004). The main project contributor was the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by way of the provision of equipment, training and technical support. A formal SIT partnership between the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) (a parastatal organization) and the Deciduous Fruit Producer's Trust covered the costs of producing sterile Mediterranean fruit flies. The Hex River Valley growers purchased sterile flies at a subsidized rate and financed all field operations including the release of sterile flies. The contribution of the national government was through involvement of ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij in which management of the project was vested. Limited and irregular grants were made available by the Western Cape Department of Agriculture.

Cultural Factors Influencing the Programme

The Western Cape deciduous fruit industry is spread over an area of approximately 50 000 square kilometres, and incorporates at least 15 separate fruit growing areas of varying sizes. Fruit growers in these areas come from different backgrounds, have different cultures and home languages, grow many different kinds of fruit crops, and have a diverse outlook on fruit farming practices. On the other hand, businessmen are also necessarily involved with a commercial AW-IPM programme, and understandably they tend to look at a programme using the SIT through other eyes. All these factors also have an impact on the ultimate success of SIT application.

Organization At The National Level

At the national level, the Cooperative Extension Service is an integral part of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). The CSREES is a national research and education network that links education programs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture with land-grant institutions, with 1890 institutions, with agricultural experiment stations, with Cooperative Extension Services, with schools of forestry, and with colleges of agriculture, colleges of veterinary medicine, and colleges of human sciences. CSREES, in cooperation with all these partners, develops and supports research and extension programs in the food and agricultural sciences and related environmental and human sciences. Examples of some program areas in which CSREES and its partners are currently working include improving agricultural productivity protecting animal and plant health promoting human nutrition and health strengthening children, youth, and families and revitalizing rural American...

State Regional And County Organization

A Cooperative Extension Specialist is a primary liaison with university research units, providing leadership, facilitating teamwork, developing collaborative relationships with colleagues, and ensuring appropriate external input into research and educational program planning by the Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) and Cooperative Extension. Ideally, the AES extension relationship is a seamless continuum, with extension identifying timely research opportunities to AES colleagues and conveying research results to clientele. The specialist also defines and considers needs of relevant clientele groups in planning, development, and execution of applied research and education programs.

Area Wide Suppression of Invasive Fire Ant Solenopsis spp Populations

ABSTRACT The fire ants Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel were inadvertently introduced into the USA early in the 1900s and currently inhabit over 150 million hectares in Puerto Rico and twelve southern states from Texas to Virginia. Imported fire ants have also become established in isolated sites in Arizona, California, Maryland, and New Mexico. The large numbers and potent sting of fire ants have resulted in significant medical, agricultural, and environmental impacts. The population densities in the USA are five to ten times higher than in South America, most likely due to their escape from natural enemies. Recently, biological control agents have become available in the USA, e.g. Pseudacteon spp. decapitating fly parasitoids and a microsporidian pathogen Thelohania solenopsae Knell, Allen & Hazard, setting the stage for integrated fire ant management. An area-wide fire ant management project proposal was funded by United States Department of...

Area Wide Suppression of Fire Ants

Agricultural Research Service (ARS) headquarters-funded programme entitled Crop Protection and Quarantine. The objective of this programme is to promote the integration of biological, genetic, cultural, physical, and chemical control technologies into effective, economical, and sustainable IPM systems and area-wide suppression programmes so that they can be transferred to customers as effective management programmes to insect and mite problems.

Mixed and Intercropping

One of the features of modern agriculture is an ever increasing tendency towards the use of monocultures (Theunissen and Den Ouden, 1980). These have allowed agriculture to become intensified and more easily manageable with a high input mechanized approach to farming. In tropical countries, the use of monocultures is practised only on larger farms or estates, while the more traditional approaches to farming utilize polycultures. The polycultures include mixed intercropping (no distinct row arrangement), row intercropping (one or more crops planted in rows), strip intercropping (crops grown in different strips, wide enough to permit independent cultivation), relay intercropping (two or more grown simultaneously for part of the life cycle of each, a second crop being planted

Research and Development Component

The Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil is the first facility in Brazil to produce sterile insects on a large scale and, as a result, there is a small critical mass of trained personnel in the country. There is however, no information regarding the effectiveness of the SIT under semiarid conditions. A set of experiments and large-scale field tests were planned and are being carried out to answer basic questions concerning the mating competitiveness of tsl strain VIENNA 8 (Franz 2005), sterile males competing with wild males for wild females, dispersion and longevity of sterile males under semi-arid conditions and related topics. In collaboration with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of USDA, the University of Tessaly in Greece, and the Joint FAO IAEA Programme, one staff member is leading a group in EMBRAPA to answer these questions with financial support from the Bank of Nordeste.

The Convention on Biological Diversity

The most important international event of recent years has been the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 which produced a document, the Convention on Biological Diversity, that was later ratified in 1995 by 142 countries around the world. The Rio-Conference, commonly known as 'Agenda 21', includes a chapter on 'Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development' (Agenda 21 Chapter 14) that deals exclusively with the problems of pesticide overuse and the need to promote effective alternatives under the general banner of Integrated Pest Management. Agenda 21 states Chemical control of agricultural pests has dominated the scene but its overuse has adverse effects on farm budgets, human health and the environment, as well as international trade. Integrated Pest Management, which combines biological control, host plant resistance and appropriate farming practices and minimises the use of pesticides, is the best option for the...

Partnership In Pest Control 1880 To World War I

The period from 1880 to 1940 witnessed the maturing of the Agricultural Experiment Stations as a national, highly coordinated network. The extension entomologists became the connecting link between the agricultural college and the agricultural producer. Because insecticides had become the first line of defense, the growing chemical industry added strength to this already solid partnership with the colleges and farmers in the aftermath of World War II. Furthermore, this was the threshold of an era of discovery of new molecules that would affect biological processes of plants and animals.

Entomology Postworld War Ii Technologys Triumph

Although industrial grants to the Agricultural Experiment Stations to fund trials of mutual interest dated from the early 1930s, they assumed a greater role in Experiment Station research as the partnership geared up for a new era in the synthesis of pesticides. The chlorinated hydrocarbons, with DDT their prototype, yielded related compounds followed by the development of organophosphates, methyl carbamates, and pyretheroids, all neuroactive chemicals. By the 1950s, post-WWII insecticides had become the mainstay of insect control, with the prewar calls for biological and cultural controls in eclipse.

Understanding the farmer

Insect pest damage is just one production constraint among many that a farmer has to consider. There are numerous factors within a farmer's family and the farming system that can affect the farmer's perception of a pest problem, the pest control decision-making process and the likelihood of adoption of new technologies and techniques. It is important that the problem definition stage of developing an IPM system includes and involves farmers those individuals who may be the beneficiaries of 'technology' or participants in the process of development. Farmers may be categorized according to characteristics, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behaviour goals (Beal and Sibley, 1967). Farmers' characteristics are the known facts about sex, age, education, literacy, and ethnic background, while knowledge includes what farmers know about alternative farming practices, cropping systems, inputs and markets. Farmers' attitudes can be described in terms of feelings, emotions and sentiments that may...

Strategic Approach for a Succesful and Sustainable Project

Fully aware of the potential benefits that can be derived from the project, the industry would contribute not only to sustain the project but also to gradually expand the areas from where fruits and vegetables could be exported. It was also expected that governments would act more decisively to implement policies that encouraged trade of agricultural products within and from the region.

The Biotic Environment

Changes in the distribution of Aphytis chrysomphali, A. lingnanensis, and A. melinus in southern California between 1948 and 1965. After P. DeBach and R. A. Sundby, 1963, Competitive displacement between ecological homologues, Hilgardia 34 105-166. By permission of Agricultural Sciences Publications, University of California and P. DeBach, D. Rosen, and C. E. Kennet, 1971, Biological control of coccids by introduced natural enemies, in Biological Control (C. B. Huffaker, ed.). By permission of Plenum Publishing Corporation and the authors.

Ipm And Sustainable Development

The scope of concerns and practices of third-level IPM as described here corresponds closely to that of sustainable development. Each emphasizes preservation of processes associated with natural ecosystems, long-term well-being of humans as members of communities, economic viability, and deployment of exogenous resources only after careful consideration. For agriculture, concepts underlying third-level IPM can be equated with concepts underlying sustainable agriculture. For both, one can expect concepts to evolve further over time.

Outcomes of the Programme

Oriental fruit fly were the predominant species on each, and B. latifrons occurred at low population densities on all three. The first demonstration project was initiated on Hawaii Island in the Waimea region. The 3800 hectare-demonstration zone (cucurbits and melons) was surrounded by pastures and was characterized by homes and a small town that separated two farming zones. The second implementation zone (4400 hectares) (cucurbits, melons, tomatoes, and persimmons) was at Kula on Maui Island. This zone was characterized by clustered, small farms (ca 7-10 hectares) that were surrounded by wild fruit fly hosts. Central Oahu was the third implementation zone. This zone encompassed more than 1600 hectares of farmland that were adjacent to large suburban residential, industrial and city areas. Intensively grown fruiting vegetables and melon crops included watermelon,

Pests of Cultivated Plants

Damage to crops and other cultivated plants by insects is enormous in the United States alone losses in potential production are estimated at 13 and have a value of about US 30 billion annually, despite the application of more than 100,000 tonnes of insecticide. Remarkably, about three quarters of the insecticide used is applied to 5 of the total agricultural land, especially that growing row crops such as cotton, corn, and soybean (Pimentel et al., in Pimentel, 1991, Vol. 1). Damage is caused either directly by insects as they feed (by chewing or sucking) or oviposit, or by viral, bacterial, or fungal diseases, for which insects serve as vectors. Especially important as direct damagers of plants are Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera (see the chapters that deal with these orders for specific examples of such pests). Several hundred diseases of plants are known to be transmitted by insects (for examples see Table 24.2) including about 300 that are caused by viruses...

Development of a Control Strategy

Different abatement approaches natural, agricultural, peri-urban and urban. In each, preliminary inspections were undertaken to determine all potential breeding sites. Then, permanent larval sampling sites were set up, which were sampled on a weekly basis. A total of 1235 sampling sites were established and checked weekly 311 in the natural environment, 818 on agricultural land and 106 in the peri-urban system. In the urban environment, and after having checked 2320 private properties, 1096 potential breeding sites were recorded the majority of which (737) were open cesspools. In addition, educational leaflets were distributed to local people with information on how to restrict mosquito breeding on their own properties and complaints of mosquito nuisance were recorded. Buffer zones were drawn on a general map of the area around each village at distances of 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kilometres. These buffer zones helped to set spraying priorities which largely depend on the dispersal abilities of...

Politics the Public and the Environment

Public perceptions are a reality even when they are ill-founded and erroneous, and can have sufficient influence to affect government policy as well as demand for agricultural products (Spedding, 1998). The control of resources and the policies for their allocation provides governments with the capability to promote IPM within a country. Governments create and control the institutions important to IPM such as national agricultural research stations, extension services, regulatory agencies and have the ability to establish mechanisms for coordinating the activities of the complex of government, non-governments (NGOs, private sector) and international organizations that are required to provide IPM in a relevant form for the farmers. Governments also need to establish appropriate mechanisms to engage a broader range of people than those in the usual circles of scientific and official advisors in risk management. Only in this way will they regain public confidence in the

Integrated Pest Management

Dent (2000) recognized three distinct phases in the development of an IPM program problem definition, research, and implementation (Figure 24.5) and suggested that the success of a program depends largely on the time and effort given to the first of these. Clearly, the more information that can be collated for the definition phase, the easier it will be to identify the research needs and implement the management strategy that will provide the maximum economic and socially acceptable returns. In addition to basic scientific information on a pest's ecology and current methods of control, there are important socioeconomic aspects to be considered that is, losses in yield must be placed in the context of the farming system in which they occur, and any changes in strategy must be formulated in consultation with, and meet with the approval of, farmers. In many early projects, relatively little information was available on which to base IPM strategies, and these were developed largely by...

A framework for the future

Affect the way in which governments develop policy and evaluate perception of risk associated with new technologies. 6. Frameworks to promote international public private sector collaboration will be established to better coordinate and identify the most effective means of promoting sustainable agriculture for major crop commodities on a global scale.

Demonstration Butterflyinsect Farm

Butterfly farming projects in indigenous areas can play an important role in the protection of swallowtail butterflies through taking pressure off wild-caught specimens. However, it is essential that such farming practices are set up with adequate financial backing to be feasible and effective in taking pressure off wild forests. Nevertheless, wild catching of butterflies, although risking extinction of certain species, is preferable to wholesale logging of forests and consequent local or total extinction of many species.

Common Species Of Hippoboscids

Sheep Ked Drawing

FIGURE 17.5 Sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus (Hippoboscidae), female, dorsal view. Courtesy of Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station.) FIGURE 17.5 Sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus (Hippoboscidae), female, dorsal view. Courtesy of Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station.)

Durable Crop Resistance to Insects

The need for a good source of useful characteristics led to the establishment in 1973 of the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) by the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) (Harlan and Starks, 1980). The role of IBPGR is to identify crops and regions where the need for conservation is greatest, to coordinate efforts for collecting germplasm and to promote the cooperation and free exchange of germplasm between nations and organizations. Seven of the CGIAR's International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) have germplasm collections of their designate crops, hence there are germplasm collections for all the major food crops (Sattaur, 1989). The collections are maintained as either seed, seedling lines or clones (Simmonds, 1979) (Fig. 5.20). highly commercial crops the costs of controlling the pest insect may be small relative to the crop value, so there is little incentive to use horizontal resistance, even if it were possible....

Models Information Technology and Communication Technology in IPM

Models are representations of a system. They attempt to mimic the essential features of a particular system where a system is taken as a limited part of reality. Rabbinge and de Wit (1989) distinguished four main levels of system in agriculture, pathosystems, cropping systems, farming systems and agroecosystems. As discussed in Chapter 5, a pathosystem includes a single host and parasite population and their interactions. These may be described by population genetics, dynamics and crop physiology (Rabbinge and de Wit, 1989). A cropping system may have a number of pathosystem components but will only deal with a single crop or intercrop. Agronomic and pest management practices A farming system consists of a number of different crops, their interactions, economics and management, and is also a subsystem of an agroecosystem. Agroecosystems are ecosystems adapted by mankind to serve their own needs and they are characterized by their component recognizable structure. This structure will...

Marketing Living Insects

One who has never witnessed the devastation of a crop by insect pests would be alarmed by the rapidity with which it can occur. One of the best ways to counter the buildup and devastation caused by insect pests is to unleash on them their own natural enemies. A vibrant industry is built on supplying the natural enemies or beneficials needed to manage pests and pest outbreaks, both for protecting agriculture and for preserving human health. These beneficials can take the form of insect pathogens, insects that prey on the pests (predators), insects that parasitize them (parasitoids), or insects that destroy weeds. This industry is increasingly in demand as growers, horticulturists, home gardeners, and vector control organizations alike turn from chemically oriented pest suppression measures to the principles of integrated pest management (IPM) and practices more attuned to organic farming. Many companies are in the business of rearing and supplying beneficial organisms, not just for...

The vertical pathosystem

The need for a discontinuous pathosystem for the evolution of the vertical subsystem has already been mentioned the other required characteristic is for a genetically mixed plant population (Fig. 5.4). In a wild pathosystem with natural levels of cross pollination, there will be a mixture of genetic lines within a population, even among clonal plant populations. Genetic mixtures have been utilized by the traditional farming methods of subsistence farmers who, even if growing clonal crops, still maintain different genetic lines

Insect Biodiversity Millions And Millions 575

KONSTANTINOV Systematic Entomology Laboratory, PSI, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department ofAgriculture, Smithsonian Institution, P. O. Box 37012, National Museum of Natural History, Rm. CE-709, MRC-168, Washington, DC 20560-0168 USA (alex.konstantinov ars.usda.gov) GARY L. MILLER Systematic Entomology Laboratory, PSI, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bldg. 005, BARC-West, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 USA (Gary.Miller ars.usda.gov) MICHAEL G. POGUE Systematic Entomology Laboratory, PSI, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Smithsonian Institution,

Insect Pests

Photo's on the back cover were provided by Patrick Robert (tsetse fly), Ignacio Baez (cactus moth), Scott Bauer (USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org -Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly), Jack Dykinga (USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org - Mexican fruit fly), Susan Ellis (www.forestryimages.org - Asian tiger mosquito), Alton N. Sparks (University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org - boll weevil), Hendrik Hofmeyr (false codling moth), and the Locust Group (FAO) (desert locust).

About the Editors

Duffus, Research Plant Pathologist with the USDA-ARS, U.S. Agricultural Research Station, Salinas, California recently retired after more then 42 years of service. A continuing Collaborating Scientist with the ARS, he has formerly served on various committees of the American Phytopathological Society, American Societies of Sugar Beet Technologists, the International Society for Plant Pathology, and the International Society of Horticultural Science. He earned a Ph.D. in Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin, with his B.S. earlier at Michigan State University.

Acknowledgements

Fukova were supported by Research Contract No. 12055 R of the Joint FAO IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria, and by Grant No. A6007307 of the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague. Research on codling moth transgenesis was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service postdoctoral research programme to L. Neven for H. J. Ferguson and by Research Contract No. 12677 of the Joint

Storage

ABSTRACT The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) funded a demonstration project between 1998 and 2003 for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) of commercial stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. The AW-IPM concept is useful to stored grain because it reduces the mixing of infested and uninfested grain at the terminal elevator by controlling insect problems in small country elevators before the grain is shipped to the terminal elevator. This project was a collaboration of the USDA-ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state. Over the five years of the study, researchers worked in approximately 55 country elevators and four terminal elevators, and collected and analysed more than 125 000 grain samples. Wheat at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes...

Discussion

Insecticides provide an adequate means of controlling pests of their livestock and crops. A farmer may be aware of the problems that insecticides can cause but many of these concerns appear long term and unrelated to the immediate need to reduce the uncertainty associated with pest control. Individual farmers may feel they have little to benefit from changing their practices while neighbours continue in traditional style, an example of Hardin's (1962) 'Tragedy of the Commons'. Also, to date,

Years

Human population density and settlement patterns along the Dongola Reach changed dramatically in medieval times. A major factor was the introduction of the saqia water wheel, which along with changing farming practices and new multi-harvest crops contributed to the expansion of the population into areas that had been largely uninhabitable since the Kerma Period. The Kingdom of Nobadia controlled Lower and Middle Nubia between the Third and First Cataracts with a population in the order of 4000 divided into about 40 settlements, with perhaps as many as 20 people per square kilometre towards the south end of the Batn-el-Hajar (Edwards 2004). The much better agricultural resources along the Dongola Reach will have sustained a much larger population. The Makuria Kingdom's main population centre lay at Old Dongola. Further north, settlements developed the west bank, where there had been limited human activity previously. This new settlement pattern was becoming more and more like the...

Theridiidae

False black widow, Steatoda paykulliana Males and females are about 7 mm long. Mature females closely resemble the blackwidowspider (Latrodectus mactans), buttheylackredmarks on the venter and the legs are brown with dark banding. The abdomen of the mature female has a red band anteriorly the immature female has a yellowish-white chevron pattern dor-sally, and there is a narrow white band around the anterior. The web is typically a random scaffolding of threads. Natural habitats include low vegetation and undisturbed areas. In urban environments they occur in unused sheds, outbuildings, and indoors. This spider is frequently carried on agricultural products (fruits), and it is imported into the UK. S. paykulliana is known to bite, and causes temporary illness in children. This species is distributed in the Mediterranean region.

1

The biology, history, and damage of the red imported fire ant are synthesized from C. R. Allen, D. M. Epperson, and A. S. Garmestani, Red Imported Fire Ant Impacts on Wildlife A Decade of Research, American Midland Naturalist, 152 (2004) 88-103 A. Flores and J. Core, Putting Out the Fire, Journal of Agricultural Research, 52 (2004) 12-14 M. T. Henshaw, N. Kunzmann, R. F. Mizell, III, Plant and Insect Characteristics of Homalodisca coagulata on Three Host Species A Quantification of Assimilate Extraction, Netherlands Entomological Society, 107 (2003) 57-68 Committee on California Agriculture and Natural Resources, California Agricultural Research Priorities Pierce's Disease (Washington, D.C. National Academies Press, 2004) R. A. Redak, A. H. Purcell, R. S. Lopes, M J. Blua, R. F. Mizell III, and P. C. Andersen, The Biology of Xylem Fluid-Feeding Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa and Their Relation to Disease Epidemiology, Annual Review of Entomology, 49 (2004) 243-262 University of...

Partnerships

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) The first challenge was to gather a local team of stakeholders who could share a common goal and vision for a successful fruit fly programme in Hawaii. This was accomplished through a series of frank discussions with individuals and institutions with knowledge and know-how on key activities and issues. These included grower training, cooperative extension and community-based education on fruit fly issues (University of Hawaii), technical issues involved with area-wide control (USDA-ARS and USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)), regulatory issues including registration of any new technology developed (Hawaii Department of Agriculture), as well as private sector entities that could provide products already on the market or in the process of development for use by the growers (Dow AgroSciences, Scentry Biologicals Inc., Better World Manufacturing, United Agricultural Products, etc.).

Greece

ABSTRACT A total of 8500 hectares were treated with larvicides against several species of mosquitoes in an area of 25 000 hectares of agricultural land with 11 500 hectares of Ramsar Convention-protected wetlands in the plain of Nestos (Prefecture of Kavala, northern Greece). Temephos, diflubenzuron and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (de Barjac) were used as larvicides. Detailed ecological mapping of vegetation using geographic information systems (GIS) was used to predict potential breeding sites. This allowed a more environmentally-friendly application of insecticides resulting in only 77 of the area being treated using helicopter and ultra-light motorized aircraft. The results, as determined by personal interviews, are satisfactory 98 considered the mosquito problem large or unbearable before the beginning of the control project while 67 considered it small or non-existent after its implementation.

The Project Area

The project is implemented in the plain of the Nestos river in a coastal area of 25 000 hectares of agricultural land irrigated by the waters of the river. Within this area, Nestos forms an extensive delta with 11 500 hectares of Ramsar Convention-protected wetlands. About 1500 hectares of these wetlands are During the summer of 2004, 2150 hectares of rice fields scattered in 586 individual parcels of on average 3.7 hectares, constituted the most important mosquito breeding sites. Abandoned agricultural land comprising 232 fields of about 850 hectares received occasional irrigation creating the second most productive breeding site. In addition, 1-2 of the total surface of 6500 hectares of corn fields were poorly drained resulting in about 100 hectares of stagnant water producing at least one mosquito generation per season. Finally surplus water and misuse of water resulted in a wide variety of potential breeding sites in urban and peri-urban environ

Pest Control

Despite this shortcoming, ladybugs are widely used on a smaller scale to reduce aphid populations. One species, the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens, is of particular note. This species aggregates in vast numbers in high mountain valleys, to pass the winter. Huge numbers are collected annually from these aggregations. The ladybugs are then packaged and stored under precisely controlled, cold conditions until the spring, when they are sold through garden centers or by mail order to ecologically minded gardeners and organic farmers.

The problem

Obtaining world food security is a complex and difficult task depending on many interrelated factors encompassing political, social and technical agendas (Ives et al., 1998). Agricultural research and development has over the last 30 years met the needs for improving agricultural production sufficient to barely meet requirements for feeding the world's growing population. This has largely been achieved through use of fertilizers, chemical pesticides and plant breeding. It is anticipated that further agricultural research and development will be able to meet the challenge to provide the required levels of food to meet continued population growth - at least up to a level where the world population stabilizes around 2035.

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