Pentatomidae Ebooks Catalog

Stink Bug Armageddon

Stink Bug Armageddon Is A Step By Step Guide On How To Get Rid Of Stink Bugs Here's what this guide will provide: A clear understanding of why you have stink bugs in your home and how to identify problem areas. Discover how stink bugs get in your home and the 7 easiest and most effective things you can do to stop them. 5 of the best ways to catch and dispose of stink bugs without getting their stinkiness sprayed all over the place. Discover 4 of the best homemade stink bugs traps known to mankind! Cheap, easy to make, and highly effective and decimating stink bug infestations. Understand the stink bug life cycle and what you can do to break it in and around your home. Learn why some of the common stink bug control advice given online should be avoided at all costs! Let me show you how to get rid of stink bugs in hard to reach places. Make your efforts permanent by following 3 simple steps to stink bug proofing your home (and you'll also prevent lots of other bug infestations as well) Fully illustrated with lots of pictures and links to online videos.

Stink Bug Armageddon Overview

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Contents: EBook
Author: Bob Haskins
Price: $19.95

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Stink Bug Control Secrets Revealed

Here is what you will learn in Stink Bug Control Secrets Revealed: Stink bug control secrets compiled and found Only in this guide. You'll discover in just a few short minutes the root causes of chronic stink bug infestation in your home and garden. Warning 3 things you should never do when dealing with stink bug infestation problems, (that will actually make your infestation worse!) Exact access points where stink bugs lay eggs and enter your home. 8 Time tested and proven strategies to prevent stink bug infestation in your home and garden. Step by step methods to eliminate an existing infestation.

Stink Bug Control Secrets Revealed Overview

Contents: EBook
Author: Bill Campbell
Official Website: www.getridofstinkbugsnow.com
Price: $24.97

Pentatomidae

These bugs are called stink bugs because of the disagreeable odor they emitwhen handled or disturbed. The adultis usually broad, oval, with the head and thorax forming a triangle the antennae are five-segmented. Many are brightly colored or conspicuously marked. Most species are plant-feeders, but some feed on other insects, and some on both. Pest status is based on overwintering of adults of several species that occur in urban and suburban areas. Individuals move toward sheltered sites in late summer and fall adults are strong flyers and can move long distances. Some species are consistent pests in the fall and winter because they return to the same sites yearly. More than 30 000 individual stink bugs have been collected inside buildings, and numbers nearly equal to that collected outside. Several species that overwinter in large numbers are found in Asia. Black and red stink bug, Cosmopepla bimaculata Adults are 5-7 mm long, shining black with bright red or yellow stripes on the...

Gut bacterial symbiosis in stinkbugs

Over 38,000 species have been described in the insect suborder Heteroptera, which are known as true bugs or stinkbugs (Schuh and Slater, 1995) . In many plant-feeding stinkbugs, the terminal region of the midgut is characterized by the presence of many sacs or tubular outgrowths, called crypts or ceca, whose lumen is filled with a specific bacterial symbiont (Glasgow, 1914 Goodchild, 1963 Buchner, 1965) . In some of the stinkbugs, experimental elimination of the symbiont was reported to cause retarded growth and nymphal mortality, suggesting that the symbionts play substantial biological roles for the host insects Probably because of their extracellular associations in the gut cavity, these stinkbugs have evolved posthatch symbiont transmission mechanisms instead of the ovarial transmission mechanisms typical of the endocellular symbionts . The following mechanisms have been described thus far superficial bacterial contamination of eggs (egg smearing) from the families Pentatomidae,...

The Case for Entomophagy among Dinosaurs

At certain seasons, many insects aggregate for mating or dispersal and are easily captured. So June beetles periodically swarming around dying gingko trees, stink bugs amassing on conifer foliage, and even pygmy grasshoppers (color plate 7B) congregating within some of the larger tree buttresses were presumably welcomed, perhaps even anticipated, and then devoured en mass by dinosaurs.

Hemipterans And People

Hemipterans are used as food for both people and their pets. In parts of Mexico, humans eat egg masses of water boatmen that are fried or dried in the sun. Giant water bugs in India are cooked in syrup and are sold as an expensive treat. Female cicadas full of eggs are eaten in many countries throughout Asia. Stink bugs and their eggs are also dried and sprinkled on food like pepper. A few species of true bugs are reared by the millions and released in agricultural fields. They are used instead of pesticides to control crop pests. For example, predatory stink bugs will attack caterpillars that eat soybean plants.

Induced indirect resistance

The production of plant volatiles can also be induced by the deposition of insect eggs on the plant. Oviposition by the elm leaf beetle Xanthoga-leruca luteola on elm leaves results in the emission of volatiles that attract the egg parasitoid Oomyzus galleruca.187 Similarly, oviposition by the herbivorous hemipteran Nezara viridula induces bean plants to emit volatiles that attract the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis.51 It is interesting to note that many characteristics of oviposition-induced plant

The Hemipteroid Orders

The harlequin cabbage bug, Murgantia histrionica (Pentatomidae). From R. C. Froeschner, 1941, Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of Missouri, Am. Midl. Nat. 26(1) 122-146. By permission of the American Midland Naturalist. The CYDNIDAE (negro bugs) (400 species worldwide) resemble the Pentatomidae in shape but are darkly colored and live under stones or dead leaves, or occasionally in ant nests. The SCUTERELLIDAE are easily recognized by their enormously enlarged mesoscutellum, which extends posteriorly to cover the entire abdomen and wings. Most of the 400 species are tropical or subtropical. They are phytophagous, sometimes becoming pests of grain crops in the Near East. PLATASPIDAE (500 species) mainly occur in tropical regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. They are mostly phytophagous, including species that are pests of legumes, though some feed on fungi and a few live in ant nests. The chiefly Old World tropical TESSARATOMIDAE (250 species) are...

Lifehistory Patterns And Phases

Embryonic Development Insect

Fig. 6.2 The life cycle of a hemimetabolous insect, the southern green stink bug or green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera Pentatomidae), showing the eggs, nymphs of the five instars, and the adult bug on a tomato plant. This cosmopolitan and polyphagous bug is an important world pest of food and fiber crops. (After Hely et al. 1982.) Fig. 6.2 The life cycle of a hemimetabolous insect, the southern green stink bug or green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera Pentatomidae), showing the eggs, nymphs of the five instars, and the adult bug on a tomato plant. This cosmopolitan and polyphagous bug is an important world pest of food and fiber crops. (After Hely et al. 1982.)

Results And Discussion

Recognized among green stink bugs by oval body, small to medium size, color pale green to ochraceous in preserved specimens, punctures concolorous and regularly Comments. Parachinavia was described for P. creolea, in comparison with Acroster-num heegeri, based on three male specimens (Roche 1977). Among green stink bugs, Acrosternum and Parachinavia represent a monophyletic group, sharing the following synapomorphies (Schwertner 2005) antennifer tubercle obsolete, not visible in dorsal view mesosternum conspicuously carinate ductus receptaculi after vesicular area reeled and strongly inflated before anterior flange capsula seminalis asymmetrical and with one projection anteriorly bent. Parachinavia can be readily distinguished from Acrosternum by punctures apparently coarser and less dense, scutellum almost as broad as long at base, postero-lateral angles of pygophore not developed, superior process of genital cup conspicuous, dorsal rim only slightly projecting over...

Evolutionary Strategies And Defensive Behaviors

Many hundreds of allomonal chemicals have been identified from insects, most being distasteful, damaging, or toxic to other animals or syn-ergizing the activity of other active chemicals in the secretion. Beyond their common properties for defense, allomones share little chemical similarity and contain compounds of almost all imaginable types, including organic acids, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters and lactones, hydrocarbons, terpenes, phenolics, quinones and hydroquinones, amines, alkaloids, sulfurous compounds, steroids, polysaccharides, peptides, and proteins. Allomones are the defensive arsenal's backup artillery used to blunt direct attack by predators. The effectiveness of allomones is embodied in the common names of some insects and their relatives stink bugs, blister beetles, bombardier beetles, and vinegaroons. The aldehydic secretions of stink bugs spread over the body surface, providing a repellent odor barrier that doubles as a...

Abundance distributions and climate change

The interactions between cold-tolerance, climate warming and range expansion have been investigated for the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula, which occurs at the northern margin of its Asian distribution in Japan (see Musolin, 2007 for review). In the 1960s, the northern limit of N. viridula was at 34.1 N delineated by the 5 C mean temperature isothermal line for the coldest month of the winter (January). By 2000, N. viridula was found 70 km further north (34.7 N), progressively displacing the closely related N. antennata. The northern limit of N. viridula seems to be determined by winter cold rather than availability of host plants or the failure of summer temperatures to support development and reproduction. Analysis of climate records indicates that the lowest and mean winter temperatures increased by 1-2 C between 1950-1960 and 2000 (Musolin, 2007). The study on N. viridula also highlighted how the critical photoperiod for diapause induction can act to constrain range...

Broadheaded bugs

I hese slender, drably colored bugs look similar to scjuash bugs (sec p.N8), but their heads are broader and almost as long as the pronotum. Many species arc antlike and are found in association with ants, although other species resemble wasps. Broad-headed bugs have we developed scent glands, which can produce even stronger odors than those emitted by stink bugs (sec p.92).

Acanthosomatidae

This small family is closely related to the Pentatomidae, but separated from them by having two instead of three tarsal segments. There are several species that overwinter as adults in large numbers in peridomestic and domestic habitats. In Japan, numerous species occur around buildings or indoors, including Acanthosoma denticaudum, A.forficula, A. haemorrhoidale angulatum, A. labiduroides,and A. spinicolle Dichobothrium nubium, Elasmostethusputoni, E. amurensis, E. signoreti,and E. humeralis,and Sastragala easkkii.

Outline of this book

An ontogenetic diet shift from herbivory to carnivory is much less common. Nymphs of stink bugs may start life as herbivores and later become predators or mixed feeders (McGavin 2000). The term life-history omnivory'' was first coined by Polis and Strong (1996).

Heteropterans

Rflure 8.1 HETEROPTERANS. (a) Ant mimicking bug (Hyalymenus sp., Alydidae). (b) Ant model for ant mimicking bug (Camponotus sp., Formicidae). (c) Giant big-legged bug (Pachylis pharaonis, Coreidae). (d) Leaf-legged bug (Diactor bilineatus, Coreidae). (e) Rice stinkbug (Oebalus poecilus, Pentatomidae). (f) Conchuela (Chlorochroa ligata, Pentatomidae).

Biglegged Bugs

Big-legged bugs are common and typical Heteroptera, generally similar to stink bugs and seed bugs but distinguished by the numerous complex veins in the membranous portion of the fore wing which the others lack. Although many have all slender legs, the hind legs are often enlarged and at times very stout, especially the femur, which may be greatly swollen the tibia also is sometimes wide and flattened, as in the so-called leaf-legged bugs. Because of this common hypertrophy of the legs and their diverse food, I have coined the common name used here which seems more widely applicable and descriptive than squash bugs, better restricted to a few genera such as Anasa.

Stinkbugs

Spanish Conchuelas (General). Portuguese Persevejos do mato, Marias fetidas (Brazil). Species of Pentatomidae (jumiles) are sold in the Mexican villages of Cuautla and Taxco for human consumption. Marketed live in paper cones in handful lots, they have a piquant taste and are believed to alleviate liver, kidney, and stomach ailments when ingested (orig. obs., Ancona 1932, 1933). Young, A. M. 1984. Phenological patterns in reproduction of Senna fructicosa (Mill.) Irwin and Barneby (Caesalpinaceae) and a pod associate, Pellaea sticta (Dallas) (Heteroptera Pentatomidae), in Costa Rican tropical rain forest. Kans. Entomol. Soc. J. 57 413-422.

Belostomatidae

Figure 8.1 Hemiptera Belostomatidae, Pentatomidae, Rhopali-dae. (a) Lethocerus americanus adult (Belostomatidae) (b) Halyomorpha mista nymph (Pentatomidae) (c) Menida scotti nymph (Pentatomidae) (d) H. mista adult (e) M. scotti adult (f) Boisea triuittata adult (Rhopalidae). Figure 8.1 Hemiptera Belostomatidae, Pentatomidae, Rhopali-dae. (a) Lethocerus americanus adult (Belostomatidae) (b) Halyomorpha mista nymph (Pentatomidae) (c) Menida scotti nymph (Pentatomidae) (d) H. mista adult (e) M. scotti adult (f) Boisea triuittata adult (Rhopalidae).

Mantidae

Mediterranean mantid, Iris oratoria Adults are 45-55 mm long the body is green with brown dorsal markings. Hind wings are often reddish brown with dark eye-spots. Prey for the nymphs and adults includes Hemiptera Pentatomidae Araneae Salticidae Hymenoptera Vespidae Coleoptera Dermaptera and Hymenoptera Apidae. This species is attracted to lights at night. It occurs in southern California and Arizona.

Trissolcus basalis

Diet The adults drink nectar, but the larvae are internal parasitoids in the eggs of stink bugs. Behavior and reproduction The larvae are parasitoids that feed individually within the eggs of stink bugs. They grow and pupate inside the eggs. Adults mate immediately after they emerge from the pupa. Females use their ovipositor to insert a single egg in the egg of a stink bug. The larva molts three times before pupating inside the host egg. Trissolcus basalis and people This species has been introduced into many different countries to control the southern green stink bug, an important pest of cotton, beans, vegetables, and citrus.