How To Start A Pest Control Business

Pest Control Profits

Nate Heller invested years in the pest business and started and sold a number of pest control businesses. He now operates his well-known Pest Control Profits website in which he teaches people exactly how to grow, manage and start and benefit from their very own pest control business. Getting your pest control business up and running can take a lot of time and energy, but it is also not really nearly as complex because many people make it out to be. Essentially, there are 3 actions to starting a pest control business. With Nate Hellers Pest Control Profits Guide youll discover probably the most lucrative business design you can begin along with, the 3 large errors to steer clear of whenever starting away, the huge marketplace that other companies do not focus on, and more. Nate will educate you on the lawful necessities of setting up a business and also the resources and sources to help you manage your own business with ease. One of the most under used forms of a pest management business is joining up with other service businesses. The majority of pest businesses just put an ad in the yellow pages as well as watch for calls to come in. In this day time within age, if that is your own just marketing strategy, it wont be well before you are left out through the competition. Continue reading...

Pest Control Profits Overview


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Pest control strategies

The concept of integrated pest management (IPM) began in the agroecosystem with the need to provide an economic base for decisions to use chemical control. The objective ofIPM was to provide an effective and economically efficient approach to pest control. The modern concept ofpest management is the integration of biological, chemical, and other control methods into a program that restricts pest density to levels below those causing economic injury. The important feature of agricultural IPM is suppression of populations and not eradication of pest populations. Pest density is linked to an economic injury level, which is considered the lowest population density that will cause economic damage. Damage may occur below this level, but it is considered acceptable because it does not affect yield or the value of the commodity.

The economics of pest control

Releases of natural enemies can often provide adequate pest control and result in a relatively undamaged crop. However, the cost of purchasing, monitoring,and managing natural enemies may be greater than the cost of using insecticides. The best pest control method for your crop may depend on the end use and market value of the crop.Whether a grower is cultivating chrysanthemums for cut flowers or for potted plants, for example, may determine the amount of damage that can be tolerated. Fungus gnats are unacceptable on potted chrysanthemums nearing harvest but are of no importance on cut chrysanthemums. Market value is determined by many factors, such as available supply, competition, quality, cultivar, and consumer demand.Values vary from season to season and even within the season.When supply is high and prices low, quality must often be the highest in order to sell the product at all. Quality becomes more flexible when supply is low and prices are high. Unfortunately, this market...

Partnership In Pest Control 1880 To World War I

The arrangement involved the agricultural constituency, lending political support to the agricultural colleges in return for their services. The colleges then aided the chemical industry by testing their products and giving their stamp of approval, which enhanced their marketability. A grateful chemical industry provided grants to the entomology departments, which were always short of operational funds. The deans at the agricultural colleges had the difficult task of being broker between the college faculty, with its leaning toward basic research, and the farm constituency seeking low-risk pest control programs. The arrangement was an American innovation that seemed to please everyone. Furthermore, the chemical industry was greatly stimulated by the economic and political activities of World War I. Food and fiber production was given high priority and new discoveries advanced the pesticide industry.

Juvenile Hormones And Insect Control

Subsequent efforts by several agrochemical companies have generated a variety of juvenoids, many with potent JH-like biological activity but with aryl rings substituted for isoprenoid units and without obvious similarities to natural JHs. These include fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen (Fig. 3). Juvenoids have proved to be commercially successful for insects that are pests in the adult stage. However, because they do not control insects in the immature stages, they have not proved useful for large-scale agricultural pest control. For this purpose, juvenile hormone antagonists are needed for induction of precocious metamorphosis. So far, that goal remains as elusive as the search for the JH receptor.

Genetics and Insect Pest Control

The principle of the SIT proposed by Knipling, Bushland and Hopkins, and the methods of pest insect control proposed by Serebrovsky achieve their goals of pest insect control through very different approaches. As Whitten (1985) explained, there is no underlying genetic theory to the SIT, rather large numbers of insects are exposed to sufficient levels of ionizing radiation to render them sterile and they are then released into the field, once again in large numbers. The increase in genetic load leads to population suppression and even elimination. The types of mutations and chromosomal damage induced in the gametes of these insects are irrelevant all that matters is that it occurs at a frequency that meets the quality control standards of the released insects. The methods described by Serebrovsky (1941) are rooted in genetic theory. The types of induced chromosomal rearrangements, their stability over time and their mode of transmission through generations in the laboratory and in the...

Urban Insects and Arachnids

This account provides the first comprehensive coverage of the insect and other arthropod pests in the urban environment worldwide. Presented is a brief description, biology, and detailed information on the development, habits, and distribution of urban and public health pests. There are 570 illustrations to accompany some of the major pest species. The format is designed to serve as a ready-reference and to provide basic information on orders, families, and species. The species coverage is international and based on distribution in domestic and peridomestic habitats. The references are extensive and international, and cover key papers on species and groups. The introductory chapters overview the urban ecosystem and its key ecological components, and review the pests' status and modern control strategies. The book will serve as a student textbook, professional training manual, and handbook for pest control professionals, regulatory officials, and urban entomologists. It is organized...

Pest status and control

For pest control or management programs to be successful, reservoir populations and habitats must be identified and reduced. The only functional reservoir populations for some peridomestic and domestic species are in secondary habitats in the urban environment. Pests whose abundance is based on the limited availability of artificial habitats and resources are vulnerable to effective chemical and nonchemical control methods, and may be eliminated.

Integrated Pest Management IPM a Reaction Against the Abuse of Insecticides

the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasizes the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption in agroecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms (FAO 2003a). The Code reflects evolving responses to changing conditions with emphasis on protecting the integrity of agroecosystems, encouraging natural pest control mechanisms, and reducing risks to human health and the environment. In the articles of the Code on pesticide management, the wider range of stakeholders, and the emphasis on promoting increased participation of farmers, women's groups, and others reflect recent experiences with successful IPM (van den Berg 2004). The rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens...

Fieldby Field and Area Wide Pest Management Approaches

Field-by-Field Pest Management Insect pest control measures can be applied either field-by-field (Fig. 1) or on an AW basis (Fig. 2), the latter addressing the total pest population within a delimited area. The simplest and most widely used strategy has been field-by-field management, which addresses only small fractions of a pest population at any given time. It allows individual crop and livestock producers, households, and businesses, to control pests independently, without investing effort in coordination, without having to obtain the consent or collaboration of other stakeholders and most importantly without taking into account the pest individuals that frequently migrate into the treated area from infestations in the untreated surroundings. Insects, themselves, are mobile but, can also be transported passively with wind, on animal hosts, or in infested commodities traded locally or internationally. This mobility severely compromises the effectiveness of uncoordinated...

Kigori P M S Modod and S J Torr 2006

In Proceedings Sterile Insect Technique as an Environmentally Friendly and Effective Insect Control System. Seminar Organized by the Regiao Autonoma de Madeira Governo Regional and the European Union, 12-13 November 1999, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal. Madeira Regional Direction of Agriculture, Madeira, Portugal. Mumford, J. 2000. Economics of area-wide pest control, pp. 39-47. In Tan, K. H. (ed.), Proceedings Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests. International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, and the 5th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 28 May-5 June 1998, Penang, Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Wood, B. J. 2002. Pest control in Malaysia's perennial crops a half century perspective tracking the pathway to integrated pest management. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 7 173-190.

Challenges of Insect Invaders

Worldwide, the movement of exotic insects, mite species and plant species from one ecosystem to another is a continuing problem for all agriculturists dealing with pest control (Pimentel et al. 2000). Borders are becoming increasingly irrelevant in the context of international travel and trade, and this facilitates the movement of invasive species (National Plant Board 1999). Technological advances in transportation in recent decades also actually facilitate both the survival and successful colonization of invasive species. The volume of air cargo of perishable agricultural commodities such as cut flowers, fruits and vegetables as well as the rate of arrival of damaging species at ports of entry in the USA is doubling every five to six years (Zadig 1999, Klassen et al. 2002). Frank and McCoy (1992) found an average rate of establishment of exotic arthropods species in Florida of 14.2 per year, and Thomas (2000) listed 150 exotic arthropod species that had been established in Florida...

Botanical insecticides

Plant products for insect control have been used as attractants, repellents, as solvents, and carriers of insecticides. However, the primary use of plant compounds is as toxicants. Nicotine, extracted from the plants Nicotiana tabacum and N. rustica, has been used for hundreds of years to kill insects. The mode of actionistoaffectthecentralnervous system ofthetargetanimal directly. Limonene is extracted from citrus peels. It is effective against some external parasites, such as fleas, lice, mites, and ticks it is nontoxic to warm-blooded animals. This botanical affects the sensory nerves of the peripheral nervous system it is not a cholinesterase inhibitor.

Engineering Insects for the Sterile Insect Technique

ABSTRACT The mass-release of sterile insects (the sterile insect technique (SIT)) is a highly effective component of area-wide methods of pest control with no environmental impact. The SIT relies on the sterilization of large numbers of insects, usually by irradiation. The SIT has been used successfully against several pest insects. However, modern biotechnology could potentially provide several improvements. These include (1) improving the identification of released individuals, (2) removing the need for radiation-sterilization, (3) reducing the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from the mass-rearing facility, and (4) providing automated sex-separation prior to release (genetic sexing). None of these are necessarily unattainable by classical methods. However, the use of recombinant DNA methods may allow these benefits to be obtained in a shorter period and to be transferred more readily from one species to another than are the products of classical genetics. The...

Preface To The Fourth Edition

The updated chapter texts are supplemented with an additional 18 new boxes, including on the topical subjects of the African honey bee and Colony collapse disorder (of bees) in the sphere of apiary, beewolf microbial defense, and the use of bed nets and resurgence of bed bugs, Dengue fever, and West Nile virus in relation to human health. New boxes are provided on how entomologists recognize species, on important aquatic insects and energy fluxes, and on evolutionary relationships of flamingo lice. Some case studies in emergent plant pests are presented, including the Emerald ash borer that is destroying North American landscape trees, and other insects (light brown apple moth, citrus psyllid and fruit flies) that threaten US crops. We relate the astonishing success story in classical biological control of the glassy-winged sharpshooter in the Pacific that provides hope for rejuvenation of this method of pest control.

Physical modifications

Methods such as the use of screens, caulking, removing moisture, limiting wood-soil contact, and other traditional methods are effective. Screening prevents flying insects and some soil-inhabiting insects, such as subterranean termites, from entering buildings. Screen specifications for excluding house flies and similar-sized species are mesh 10, aperture length 2.27 mm excludes house flies and, mesh 20, aperture length 0.853 excludes ceratopogonid (Ceratopogonidae) flies. Traps based on light, ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide, pheromones, and other chemical scents can be used for local and area-wide insect control.

Genetic Sterilization

Timescale, is entirely a matter of speculation at present. This possibility of resistance is not a new issue, and applies equally to the other major pest control methods of chemical pesticides and genetically engineered insecticidal crops. In each case, the evolution and spread of resistance can be managed or mitigated by various methods, including stacking effector molecules, etc. These methods can also be applied to the use of engineered repressible lethals.

Reduced Escape Hazard

Insect pest control programmes with an SIT component mass-rear the pest insect on a massive scale. Until these insects have been irradiated, any escape would be unwelcome, and potentially catastrophic. In fact, SIT applications have an excellent safety record in this respect, but non-irradiated releases have indeed occasionally happened, for example of New World screwworm in Mexico and Panama in 2003 (del Valle 2003). However, all accidental outbreaks were quickly eliminated by the release of additional sterile insects. Natural disasters (e.g. hurricanes or earthquakes), accidents or sabotage could also have very severe consequences. The use of genetic sexing strains for Mediterranean fruit fly SIT, such as the strains based on the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation mitigates these consequences as colony females are temperature sensitive. However, the engineered repressible lethal strains described above have the potential to provide a more satisfactory solution. These...

Preface To The Third Edition

Since writing the earlier editions of this textbook, we have relocated from Canberra, Australia, to Davis, California, where we teach many aspects of entomology to a new cohort of undergraduate and graduate students. We have come to appreciate some differences which may be evident in this edition. We have retained the regional balance of case studies for an international audience. With globalization has come unwanted, perhaps unforeseen, consequences, including the potential worldwide dissemination of pest insects and plants. A modern entomologist must be aware of the global status of pest control efforts. These range from insect pests of specific origin, such as many vectors of disease of humans, animals, and plants, to noxious plants, for which insect natural enemies need to be sought. The quarantine entomologist must know, or have access to, global databases of pests of commerce. Successful strategies in insect conservation, an issue we cover for the first time in this edition, are...

Insects And Spiders As Pests

These and other pests are effectively controlled by integrated pest management, or IPM. IPM includes plowing fields to kill pests in the ground, rotating crops so that they will not have anything to eat, or planting other crops nearby that will give their enemies a place to live and prosper. Whenever possible, natural enemies are used to combat pests instead of pesticides. The use of predators, parasitoids, and diseases is called biological control. Spiders might be considered biological controls in some fields, but most species tend to eat anything they can catch, not just the pest. IPM depends on accurate identification of the pest and a thorough knowledge of its life history so that control efforts can be directed at the pest's most vulnerable life stages. However, if not used wisely, any pest control method may harm other species or their habitats.

Honey Bee Diseases Parasites Predators and Poisoning

The development of large-scale agriculture has involved the use of insecticides, many of which are toxic to bees and can kill those taken to pollinate crops. In California alone, insecticides killed 82,000 colonies in 1962 in 1973 the number was reduced to 36,000, but in 1981 it had risen again, to 56,000. More attention is now paid to the use of practices that protect the bees, including selecting pesticides less toxic to beneficial insects, using pesticides in the forms least toxic to honey bees (e.g., granular instead of dust), spraying at night when bees are not flying, spraying only when the crop is not in flower, and using systemic insecticides and biological pest control. Possible actions by the beekeeper are less satisfactory moving hives away from areas to be treated, or confining the bees during spraying by placing a protective cover over each hive and keeping it wet to reduce the temperature.

Sinkins S P and H C Godfray 2004

L. O'Neill. 1997. The potential application of inherited symbiont systems to pest control, pp. 155175. In O'Neill, S. L., A. A. Hoffmann, and J. H. Werren (eds.), Influential passengers inherited microorganisms and arthropod reproduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of

Using GPS instruments and GIS techniques in data management for insect pest control programmes. Tutorial CD. IAEA, Vienna, Austria. Ives, A. R., and W. H. Settle. 1997. Metapopulation dynamics and pest control in agricultural systems. American Naturalist 149 220-246.

Symbiosis Based Technological Advances to Improve Tsetse Glossina spp SIT Application

ABSTRACT Tsetse flies, Glossina spp. are the sole vectors of the parasitic African trypanosomes, which cause devastating diseases in humans and animals. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is one pest control tool that, when integrated on an area-wide basis, is highly effective against tsetse populations. Several molecular techniques have the potential to enhance the application of this approach. In particular, the ability to engineer refractoriness into released strains would enhance the efficacy of this approach, especially in human disease endemic areas. In addition, natural mating incompatibilities between some populations could be exploited to enhance the fitness of released males, as the irradiation dose could be reduced to that required for female sterilization without compromising overall male sterility. The viviparous reproductive nature of tsetse flies has made direct germ-line transformation impossible. However, the symbiotic microorganism Sodalis glossinidius that lives in...

Objectives and Strategies

In general, if used correctly, chemical insecticides are incredibly effective at killing their target pest. If the most appropriate insecticide is selected, if it is targeted effectively when applied and the timing, rate of application and number of applications is optimized in relation to the application costs and subsequent benefits achieved through increased crop yield, then insecticides remain an efficient and economic means of controlling insect pests. Even when used inappropriately, and applied incorrectly, the perceived benefits of insecticides to the farmer still seem justified in relation to their costs, the yields obtained and the perceived benefits of reduced risk from pest damage. Hence, even in this simplistic way it is easy to understand why insecticides have proved so popular among users as a means of pest control. Despite these improvements in reducing the disadvantages associated with chemical insecticides they remain hazardous substances that need to be treated as...

Colony Maintenance and Mass Rearing Using Cold Storage Technology for Extending the Shelf Life of Insects

ABSTRACT Implementation of area-wide pest control programmes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) is fundamentally dependant on the ability to rear large numbers of insects and to precisely release them, often at some distance from the production site. This process of producing purely biological agents for pest control frequently demands that periods of low temperature are utilized to store, stockpile or immobilize the insects to maintain quality and gain economy and effectiveness. Likewise, rearing and maintenance of often numerous laboratory colonies for the purpose of conducting research to develop and improve SIT programmes can also benefit from the use of this technology. Two approaches that can be used to maintain quality and to extend the utility of insects are cryopreservation and dormancy. Using either of these methods to extend the shelf-life of mass-reared or laboratory-cultured insects requires that they closely conform to the physiological and developmental...

Ferguson H J L G Neven D B Walsh S Thibault and J J Peloquin 2004

Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, with piggyBac and EGFP. In Book of Abstracts, National Entomological Society of America Meeting, 14-17 November 2004, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. ESA, USA. http esa 2004 techprogram programs.htm Fryxell, K. J., and T. A. Miller. 1995. Autocidal biological control a genetic strategy for insect control based on genetic transformation with a highly conserved gene. Journal of Economic Entomology 88 12211232.

Biological Control of Insect Pests

Biological control is a form of pest control that uses living organisms to suppress pest densities to lower levels. It is a form of ecologically based pest management that uses one kind of organism (the natural enemies) to control another (the pest species). Types of natural enemies vary with the type of pest. For example, populations of pest insects such as scales are often suppressed by manipulating populations of parasitoids, which are insects that develop in or on the pest insects they attack and kill. Populations of plant-feeding mites, such as the common twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) are often limited by predators, especially mites in the family Phytoseiidae. Populations of weeds can be suppressed by specialized herbivorous insects that feed on them. Finally, many insect populations have pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, or fungi) that infect them. Such pathogens, whether they occur naturally or are applied artificially as microbial pesticides, can locally and...

Future Use Of Biological Control

Biological control can be implemented through four different approaches conservation of existing natural enemies, importation of new species for permanent establishment, temporary natural enemy augmentation, and use of microbial pesticides. The first two methods are most widely applicable and have produced the greatest benefits. Conservation biological control is the foundation of all insect control. Importation biological control is the method that is appropriate to combat exotic invasive pests (whose numbers are large and increasing). Augmentative biological control is limited by cost factors and largely restricted to high-value crops in greenhouses. Microbial pesticides are niche market tools useful in IPM programs but are limited by high production costs or the narrow host ranges of the pathogens. Biological control's greatest strengths are in public sector applications (conservation, importation) rather than private sector approaches (augmentative, microbial pesticides). Expanded...

Use Of Biotechnology For Management Of Insect Pests In Agriculture

Despite the progress made in recent years, a significant proportion of the world's food supply is lost to the activities of insect pests. The deleterious impact of chemical pesticides on the environment, combined with the emergence of technologies enabling plants to be transformed with foreign genes, has driven the seed industry to develop transgenic plants as novel, environmentally benign means of pest control. Insect-protected crops were among the first products of biotechnology to have a significant impact on crop protection, and at times their use has resulted in decreased application of classical chemical pesticides. Engineered Insect Pathogens for Pest Control Considerable progress has been made toward optimization of entomopathogenic viruses at the genetic level. The baculoviruses are arthropod-specific viruses that have been studied extensively both as protein expression vectors and as insect pest control agents. These viruses have been genetically engineered with genes...

Coop L M Kogan and W Bajwa 2000

(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1966. Proceedings of the FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control, 11-15 October 1965, FAO, Rome, Italy. Part 1, 2, and Part 3. FAO, Rome, Italy. (FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1975. Pest control problems (preharvest) causing major losses in world food supplies. AGP, Pest PH75 B31, FAO, Rome, Italy.

Conservation Status

Despite their reputation as disgusting pests, cockroaches are used as food by humans. Those daring enough to try adult cockroaches have said that they taste like shrimp. The Aborigines of Australia and the Lao Hill tribe of Thailand eat them raw, while children throughout Laos collect the egg capsules for frying. In the United States cockroaches are never on the menu, but they still occasionally wind up on our plates, accidentally served up from kitchens that have fallen behind in their pest control efforts.

Brief History of Pest Management

Colonies of predatory ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) were set up in citrus groves, moving between trees on bamboo bridges to control caterpillar and beetle pests (Coulsen et al, 1982). These practices date back over 1000 years. Genetic resistance is one of the oldest recognized bases of plant pest control (Panda and Khush, 1995). Theophrastus recognized the differences in disease susceptibility among crop cultivars as early as 3 bc (Allard, 1960) and, of course, farmers will have selected for resistance to local pests by the practice of saving seed from healthy plants for sowing the next season. Over many generations of selection resistant land races developed, which provided sustainable levels of yield for average local conditions. Thus by 500 ad all the general types of control measure available today - insecticides, host plant resistance, biological and cultural control - had already been developed and used by one civilization or another. From these beginnings the scientific...

Degradation and fragmentation of ecosystems

Most insecticides are used in the agricultural sector, while those used in urban pest control pose little threat to insect diversity conservation (Samways, 1996c). The problem with pesticides lies mostly in their impact on food chains through bioaccumulation (Moore, 1987). The important point is that it is not generally how poisonous per se a compound is, but rather the persistence of its toxic impact. This is why certain organochlorines, which have been used widely for mosquito and leaf-cutter ant suppression, are so environmentally threatening. Those environmental threats coupled with human health hazards and high costs, are reasons why pesticide usage is being reduced where possible (Pimentel, 1995).

The Role of Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis in Area Wide Vector Control Programmes

ABSTRACT The success of area-wide interventions aimed at suppressing or eradicating insect populations rests largely on appropriate project planning and implementation - and this is as true in the context of vector-borne diseases as it is within the wider context of insect pest management. In either context, a successful control programme requires accurate knowledge of pre-existing distributions of insects (disease vectors) in time and space, on the appropriate design of insect control strategies, and on the development of suitable frameworks for monitoring and evaluation. Standard disease control operations, such as indoor residual spraying of insecticides or insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria, and the aerial application of insecticides or use of baited traps against the vectors of human and animal trypanosomosis, often include elements of area-wide planning because they target particular disease strata. Genetic control strategies (including the sterile insect technique (SIT))...

Spatial Tools for Control of Vector Borne Diseases

Large variety of multispectral sensor data available - with each sensor offering different advantages in terms of spatial resolution (pixel size), temporal resolution (revisit time) and spectral resolution (the number, width and spacing of the spectral bands used by the sensor). With a number of new satellite sensors due for launch in the next five years it should become increasingly easy to match the specific data requirements of individual disease or pest control programmes with appropriate sources of satellite imagery.

Insecticide Resistance

There are relatively few resistance management tactics that have been proposed that are sufficiently risk-free and intuitive to stand a reasonable chance of success in the majority of circumstances. Foremost among these are (i) restricting the number of applications over time and or space (ii) creating or exploiting refugia (iii) avoiding unnecessary persistence (iv) alternating between chemicals and (v) ensure targeting is against the most vulnerable stage(s) in the pest life cycle (Denholm et al., 1998). However, experience would suggest that the most difficult challenge in managing resistance is not the identification of appropriate tactics but ensuring their adoption by growers and pest control operatives.

Dosage and persistence

Doses, if a persistent insecticide is used. Mobile natural enemies may avoid an insecticide application or move into a previously treated area, or if present during an application they may survive as a resistant stage or within sheltered refuges. However, if an insecticide is persistent the chances of contamination of natural enemies by insecticide residues are greatly enhanced. Since persistent insecticides are more likely to contribute to insecticide resistance and have a greater effect on natural enemy populations, the advantages of persistence in terms of improved pest control are short lived.

Inhibition Of Chitin Synthesis And Degradation

Because chitin is present in invertebrates (abundantly in arthropods) and absent from vertebrates and plants, it is a logical target for selective pest control. Acylurea compounds, discovered serendipitously by Dutch scientists in 1972, inhibit chitin synthesis, resulting in deformed and weak cuticles that cause molting failure and death by desiccation. Acylureas do not inhibit the catalytic step of polymerization, and their exact biochemical lesion is unresolved. It appears that the mode of action is associated with the process of chitin translocation from site of catalysis across cell membranes to the region of deposition and fibrillogenesis. The first commercial product reaching the market was diflubenzuron (Dimilin) (Fig. 3), which was followed by a large number of structurally similar bioactive molecules. The acylurea compounds, which act as insect growth regulators, are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs.

The Stakeholders in Pest Management

There is a tendency within IPM to develop and employ control measures that can provide only a short-term solution to the problem. Such measures can work effectively only over a limited time scale because as soon as their use becomes widespread pests will adapt them and render them useless, e.g. prolonged use of a single insecticide, vertical resistance in crop plants and the use of genetically engineered crop plants. All of these examples provide only short-term answers to pest problems, but each also produces a research development treadmill from which there is no escape. This may provide work for researchers and short-term economic gains for commercial companies, but it does not ultimately solve pest problems, or contribute a great deal to the development of sound insect pest management strategies. Despite this, many techniques gain acceptance within the framework of IPM because each new technique could be claimed to provide another weapon to be added to the pest control armoury....

Plantprovided food and biological control

The role of food supplements in plant-herbivore-carnivore interactions is not only an important topic in basic ecology, but is also directly linked to the applied discipline of biological pest control. Defensive food provision has evolved repeatedly and independently, suggesting that it constitutes a powerful mechanism through which plants can enhance the effectiveness of carnivores. We pursue the same objective in biological control programs. Here too, we aim at enhancing the efficacy with which carnivores control herbivorous pests.

Area Wide Control of Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Ethiopian Experience in the Southern Rift Valley

Coordination Office, PO Box 79977, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2STEP Field Coordination Office, PO Box 474, Awassa, Ethiopia 5Insect Pest Control Sub-Programme, Joint FAO IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, PO Box 700, A-7400 Vienna,

Main Arthropod Pests And Control Strategies

In IPM, pest control decisions are directly dependent upon knowing the status and population trends of the most important insect pests and their natural enemies (Beardsley, AliNiazee, & Watson, 1979 Cavalloro & Prota, 1983 Katsoyannos, 1996). Sampling and monitoring are the means for acquiring this important knowledge. Simplified sampling guidelines for monitoring the main citrus insect pests in the northern Mediterranean have been advised by experts defining methods of visual inspection as well as trapping using food, chromotropic and sexual attractants for monitoring purposes (Katsoyannos, 1996) (Tables 3 and 4).

Pests and cropping system

The use of natural enemies for the control of low threshold pests is generally not feasible, which is why biological control is rarely used for control of disease vectors or of pests of stored products. The tolerance levels in stored products are usually very low so that even a minor infestation may prove to be unacceptable. However, some parasitoids can exert control to levels of 98 (e.g. Choetospila elegans against Rhyzopotha dominica Flinn et al, 1996) and in rural storage bins in developing countries subsistence farmers may have a higher tolerance for damaged products (de Lima, 1979). This increase in tolerance has the effect of increasing the threshold of the pest, with the result that biological control then becomes a possible option for pest control. In the case of stored products, however, there are still few insect para-sitoids that appear to exert sufficient control to be of practical use (de Lima, 1979 Parker and Nilakhe, 1990) although some Other pest characteristics apart...

Area Wide Control Tactics for the False Codling Moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta in South Africa a Potential Invasive

ABSTRACT The false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) is a key pest of citrus, stone fruit, and other crops in many countries throughout continental Africa, including South Africa. There is a growing awareness that this damaging pest could soon be introduced into other countries including the USA as a direct result of increased international trade and daily direct flights from African countries. South Africa currently employs a combination of cultural, chemical, microbial and augmentative biological control to suppress false codling moth. Augmentative biological control makes use of the egg parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae Nagaraja. However, this integrated programme is not adequate for effective false codling moth control. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is now being developed as an additional method for false codling moth suppression in South Africa, but also as a tactic that could be rapidly integrated in an area-wide integrated pest management strategy...

Area Wide Strategy for Management of Rice Stem Borers

Other studies have also shown that certain types of light traps can reduce damage to rice plants by as much as 80 (Yang et al. 2004). This resulted from the lower density of ovipositing female moths and eggs and hence, of damaging larvae. In paddy fields treated with frequency-vibration light traps, the number of insecticide applications was reduced to two and the quantity of insecticide applied was reduced to 2.1 kg ha, thereby reducing the cost of pest control over the whole rice growing season by USD 17 ha.

Field survey collection and observation

Inevitably, the first step in any investigation of the role of natural enemies in pest control involves a field survey to determine which species are present and how their numbers vary in relation to those of the pest insect (e.g. Sivasubramaniam et al., 1997). This usually means that intensive field sampling is carried out using a variety of techniques over a number of seasons in order to gain some insight into the magnitude of seasonal fluctuations and some indication of the relative importance of the different natural enemies. The researcher would be looking for apparent associations and correlations between insect pest numbers and the numbers of a particular group or species of natural enemy (Figs 6.10 and 6.11) (e.g. Heong et al., 1991), although the existence of such correlations is not proof of a causal relationship between pest and natural enemy numbers. One way round this problem is to make a step-by-step analysis of the role of each of the other possible causes of pest...

Suppression Method of New World Screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax Prior to the Release of Sterile Insects

Presa Penitas no. 277, Colonia Electricistas Fraccionamiento, Las Palmas, CP 29040, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico 2Instituto de Medicina Veterinaria,Calle 12 Nro. 355 entre 15 y 17 Plaza, CP 10400, La Habana, Cuba 3Insect Pest Control Sub-Programme, Joint FAO IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria

Decision Making for the SIT Early Experiences

However, unlike the use of pesticides, the business (both in terms of research and development and field application) of the SIT has remained in public hands for much of the history of this approach to pest control, and this has influenced decision-making to date. SIT in an AW-IPM programme sometimes reflect necessary judgements regarding the socio-economic situation of the country or region, rather than simply politics. Mumford (2000) distinguishes the subjective components of these decisions by explaining why the same data may not always result in the same decision. Some of these subjective issues are related to the variability inherent in the perception of risk. The country's stated -or implied - acceptable level of risk should influence decisions regarding pest control. Choice of limits for externalities to be taken into account, and preferences on time horizon for return on investment may reflect attitudes of society at large more than a quarantine perspective. In...

Establishment of a Commercial Mediterranean Fruit Fly Facility in Israel

Bio-Bee Sde Eliyahu Ltd, a company that had mass-produced beneficial arthropods for biological pest control since 1983, and bumblebees Bombus spp. for natural pollination since 1991, was soon identified as the most suitable business partner in the region. IAEA, with the financial support of the USAID, provided assistance to Bio-Bee Sde Eliyahu Ltd through the Israeli Plant Protection and Inspection Services to better understand the technology involved, to visit other rearing facilities and operational programmes in Latin America and in Southern Europe, to prepare its own business plan, and finally to design its future rearing facility.

Sowingplanting density

The spacing of plants will have a significant effect on their yield, with the maximum weight of the plant material from a unit area of land only being obtained when the individual plants are competing with each other (Finch et al., 1976). Obviously there are limits where plant density will severely influence plant yield and or quality but within these limits, there may be plant densities which also reduce pest insect abundance and can potentially be used as a form of cultural control. Ultimately, however, yield advantages due to plant spacing will tend to over-ride the effects of plant density on pest incidence or damage. The density of sorghum seedlings affects the number of eggs that are laid by the sorghum shootfly (Atherigona soccata) (Fig. 7.2) but at the higher densities where the pest control effect is greatest, the stem height, width of last expanded leaves and leaf stage of the sorghum are reduced to a level that would not give a satisfactory yield (Delobel, 1981).

Forest Pest Management

In populations of native and introduced forest insects, especially defoliators, it has been possible to identify viruses that are specific to their host insect. Rearing and release of these viruses offer promise for pest control in some situations, especially for defoliating Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. The nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer, has been applied to thousands of hectares of forests in Europe over the past 35 years. An NPV that infects gypsy moth has also been used in efforts to slow the spread of this species in North America. The accidental introduction of an NPV in the 1930s, along with a parasite of the European spruce sawfly, Diprion hercyniae, into eastern Canada has reduced this species to very low densities.

Mixed and Intercropping

Before the harvest of the first) (Andrews and Kassam, 1976) and alley intercropping (annual crops are grown in strips between trees) (ICRISAT, 1989). Most of the food consumed in tropical Asia, Latin America and Africa is produced in such systems which often more readily meet the needs of the smaller scale farmer than does the monocrop (Perrin and Phillips, 1978). A mixed or intercropping regime can provide a greater total land productivity as well as insurance against the failure or unstable market value of any single crop. In addition crops in intercropping systems may improve soil fertility and the availability of alternative sources of nutritious products (Risch et al., 1983) as well as reducing the incidence of insect pest attack (Tingey and Lamont, 1988) and thereby maintaining lower pest control costs. Intercropping has been studied sufficiently for there now to

Development And Life Histories

In this chapter we discuss the pattern of growth from egg to adult - the ontogeny - and life histories of insects. The various growth phases from the egg, through immature development, to the emergence of the adult are considered. Molecular insights into the embryo-logical development of insects are discussed in a box. We discuss the significance of different kinds of metamorphosis and suggest that complete metamorphosis reduces competition between conspecific juveniles and adults, by providing a clear differentiation between immature and adult stages. Amongst the different aspects of life histories covered are voltinism, resting stages, the coexistence of different forms within a single species, migration, age determination, allometry, and genetic and environmental effects on development. We include a box on a method of calculating physiological age, or day-degrees (degree-days). The influence of environmental factors, namely temperature, photoperiod, humidity, toxins, and biotic...

Effects On Natural Resources Agriculture And Human Health

Ample evidence now shows, however, that pollinator diversity and crop pollination services are at risk as a result of the use of pesticides habitat alteration, fragmentation, and destruction introduction of alien species and diseases (Johansen 1977, Kevan etal. 1990, Royce and Rossignol 1990, Watanabe 1994, Raloff 1996, Kearns and Inouye 199 7, Kearns et al. 1998, Kremenet al. 2002, Steffan-Dewenteret al. 2005). The innumerable insect predators and parasites are invaluable for natural biological control. Natural pest-control services maintain the stability of agricultural systems worldwide and are crucial for food security, rural household incomes, and national incomes in many countries (Naylor and Ehrlich 199 7). Enough cases of highly effective natural biological control have been studied to indicate that 99 or more of potential pest insects are under such natural control (DeBach 19 74). Natural pest controls represent an important ecosystem service, with an annual replacement value...

The Potential Of This Technology

Few of these future potential applications are directly related to insects or insect control. However, each of them is likely to create significant needs for entomological investigations. Traits such as abiotic stress tolerance, altered lignin content, altered macronutrient or micronutrient content, and metal accumulation are all likely to have profound effects on plant physiology and growth. Because insect herbivores and their natural enemies are very sensitive to changes in plant physiology, growth rates, and morphological structure, these new transgenic crops are likely to create new kinds of pest control problems that will require entomological solutions. Indeed, it may become necessary to devise variety-specific pest management systems for some of these novel plants.

Types of behaviour modifying chemicals

Alarm pheromones, epitomized by (E)-P-farnesene in aphids, are released when insects are under threat. The aphid alarm pheromone is released when individuals are attacked by predators or parasitoids eliciting increased activity amongst nearby individuals. Alarm pheromones basically elicit an escape response increasing movement and thus preventing or reducing their chances of attack. They have had only limited use in applications for pest control although they have potential for use in novel ways. For example, (E)-P-farnesene has been used to increase the mobility of aphids so that contact pesticides such as pyrethroids are more readily picked up (Pickett, 1988), while simple components of the honey bee sting and mandibular gland can be used to repel beneficial foraging bees from oilseed rape during insecticide applications (Free et al., 1985).

Genetic Engineering In Drosophila Melanogaster

One cannot discuss the genetic manipulation of insects without describing the molecular genetic tools that are available in D. melanogaster. Traditionally, a gulf has existed between entomologists who view the harmless vinegar fly as being distant to the problems of insect control and Drosophila geneticists who utilize the many biological attributes of Drosophila to understand the basis of gene action. This gulf will close as comparative genomics reveals similarities and differences in the conservation of many genes and molecular pathways between Drosophila and other insect species. The power of this comparative approach to modern biology will offer insect scientists and traditional entomologists exciting opportunities to bring the power of genetics and molecular biology to the control of insects. The development and application of these tools is what insect scientists seek to achieve in pestiferous and beneficial insects.

History of the Project

this environment-friendly technology, complemented by minimum use of organic bait to lower wild fly populations, is an important addition to the technologies supporting Brazilian agriculture. The introduction of this IPM component opens the door to other pest control tools such as fruit fly parasitoids and expanded use of sterile insects to control other fruit fly species of economic importance.

Inhibition of chitin metabolism

Phenomena, essential regulatory mechanisms assume a pivotal role. Inhibition studies shed light on the involvement of crucial regulatory factors that facilitate the integration of sequential and multi-lateral interacting events. As stated before, chitin is an essential structural component of insect cuticles and PM matrices as well as of cell walls of most fungi. Since interference with its synthesis or degradation should inflict detrimental lesions, chitin has become an attractive target for safe and selective pesticides (insecticides as well as fungicides) with minimal toxicity to non-target organisms such as plants and vertebrates. The search for potent inhibitors revealed diverse and unrelated groups of compounds some of which are effective as pest control agents. Obvious sites for interference include the catalytic domains of polymerization and hydrolysis, translocation of polymer chains, crystallization and fibrillogen-esis, and hormonal control of chitin metabolism. Transgenic...

Strategies for Integrated Control of Helicoverpa armigera in SiCotton

The practice for insect pest control in cotton has demonstrated that preservation and augmentation of existing predators and para-sitoids by means of rational application of insecticides and planting type can effectively decrease population densities of cotton aphid and cotton bollworm. Another approach to increase the impact of natural enemies is to use selective pesticides instead of broad-spectrum insecticides. In general, pyrethroids are highly toxic to natural enemies, and their use is therefore restricted to the late period of cotton growth. H. armigera overwinters as dia-pausing pupae in the soil of cotton and corn fields. Irrigation in winter and early spring can kill most pupae in the field, which is thought to be an effective method to decrease population density in the next season.

History of Entomology

Led to a concept based on ecological principles which is referred to as integrated pest management (IPM). In this system, multiple control technologies are used, with the additive effect being to hold insect injury at acceptable levels while avoiding excessive environmental insult. The age-old struggle continues entomologists are now armed with the lessons of the past advances in insecticidal chemistry, bio logical control, and cultural methods and visionary new technologies based on genetic modification of plants and animals. Simultaneously, the rise of the environmental movement and ecological awareness has placed insects in a new context, highlighting their essential role in biodiversity on which the viability of the Earth depends. The vision for the 21st century calls for compatibility between insect control and conservation both are prerequisites to human well-being. Stewardship of the Earth is the greatest challenge ahead and one that places awesome responsibility on the...

Entomology Postworld War Ii Technologys Triumph

No field emerged with more exciting prospects than did the field of entomology. DDT, with its wartime secrecy removed, was hailed as the answer to insect control. Its employment in arresting an epidemic of typhus in Naples in 1943-1944 dramatically neutralized the lethal companion of armed conflict, vector-borne disease. Overnight the entomological community documented DDT's remarkable effectiveness in controlling insect pests of agricultural, medical, and veterinary importance. The race was on, and an old alliance assumed new vigor. The Land Grant Universities joined with industry and agriculture to exploit the new possibilities of chemical pest control. Although industrial grants to the Agricultural Experiment Stations to fund trials of mutual interest dated from the early 1930s, they assumed a greater role in Experiment Station research as the partnership geared up for a new era in the synthesis of pesticides. The chlorinated hydrocarbons, with DDT their prototype, yielded related...

Understanding the farmer

Insect pest damage is just one production constraint among many that a farmer has to consider. There are numerous factors within a farmer's family and the farming system that can affect the farmer's perception of a pest problem, the pest control decision-making process and the likelihood of adoption of new technologies and techniques. It is important that the problem definition stage of developing an IPM system includes and involves farmers those individuals who may be the beneficiaries of 'technology' or participants in the process of development. Farmers may be categorized according to characteristics, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behaviour goals (Beal and Sibley, 1967). Farmers' characteristics are the known facts about sex, age, education, literacy, and ethnic background, while knowledge includes what farmers know about alternative farming practices, cropping systems, inputs and markets. Farmers' attitudes can be described in terms of feelings, emotions and sentiments that may...

Implications For Biological Control

The above-mentioned considerations illustrate the most important implications that host-seeking behavior in parasitoids has on practical biological control, but there is another dimension. As already mentioned, Trichogramma egg parasitoids intensively search areas in which scales from female moth hosts have been deposited. The main attractive material in these scales is tricosane. When tricosane is artificially deposited on foliage containing eggs of the host moth, the resulting parasitism by Trichogramma is higher than in areas not having tricosane. Thus, the direct use of such kairomones could improve pest control by manipulating the behavior of natural enemies. Although such schemes have so far not been economically viable, similar manipulations may prove to be workable in situations not yet tested. Continued research may well lead to some useful control methods. Semiochemicals Their Role in Pest Control. Wiley, New York. Vet, L. E. M., Lewis, W. J., and Card , R. T. (1995)....

Integrated Area Wide Management

Commencing in 1997, property owners within a 15 square block area in the heart of the French Quarter were notified through town hall style meetings, the news media and through direct contact letters to begin enrolment in the programme. Cooperators launched the programme through educational efforts to explain the treatment options and to obtain citizen cooperation. Standard commercial pest control contracts were established between the property owners and pest control operators, while payments were made with funds provided by the programme. Enrolment reached 100 of the properties within two years. The greatest impediment to enrolment was making contact with property owners or managers since many of them were located out of town or country.

Strategic Approach for a Succesful and Sustainable Project

Implementation was based on an AW-IPM approach. In some cases the SIT was a major component to achieve the desired levels of pest control (Tween 1993). In others, where populations occurred naturally at low levels, only marginally attacked the relevant host, or did not exist, the approach taken was through certification of the phytosanitary status by means of an effective surveillance system. Exports from FF-ALPP would then be done under a systems approach (USDA 1997) to assure negligible level of risk of moving live pests.

Regulations Of Insecticide Uses

The projected use, the levels of acute toxicity of the agent contemplated, its effectiveness as an insect control agent (called efficacy), the intended modes of usage, and the availability of background knowledge, among other requirements. Occasionally, experimental use permits are given after this Tier 1 examination process (e.g., for insect pheromones, which are already known to be almost nontoxic and are to be used only for a specific pest in small areas). Usually, however, registrants are required to go through a much more extensive and rigorous process of registration, data procurement, and evaluation. For example, extensive tests are required for acute, chronic (such as carcinogenicity tests), genetic, pathogenic, reproductive, hormonal, and immune toxicities along with the environmental behavior of chemicals and limited wildlife toxicities. Such registration processes, which must be completed before a new chemical pesticide can be sold in the United States, typically require 7...

Case Study A hypothetical goal programming problem

Suppose a farmer has two fodder crops (X1 and X2) and a total of 10 ha of land available on which to grow them. Crop X1 can be used as a cash crop whereas X2 is needed to maintain his own cattle stock a minimum of 4 ha is required for this. The labour requirement for the cash crop is high so the farmer cannot afford to grow more than 5 ha of this crop. The financial return from the two crops is different, 1 ha of X1 gives two and a half times the return of crop X2 and the farmer wishes to return a profit at least equal to 30. There is one further constraint very occasionally there is a pest that attacks crop X1 and can cause complete devastation. Since pest control options are too expensive, it only pays to grow about 2 ha of this crop. The priority order of goals of the farmer are

National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Programme PROCEM

Approach to pest control throughout the national territory, involving implementation of the area-wide concept and adapting different technologies to each particular condition. It will enforce actions that have been implemented for years in Patagonia and Cuyo regions, and will expand control into new areas like the north-eastern and north-western regions, where fruit flies have a direct impact on citrus production. To ensure more effective pest control, it will first be necessary to improve the chemical control to suppress pest populations. Prior to initiating the SIT, 12 aerial bait sprays with NuLure (500 cc ha) and malathion 100E (100 cc ha) will be carried out in the north-eastern region during the first three months. In La Rioja and San Juan, such suppression will be carried out over three months using ground sprays in urban and suburban areas. The programme will supply sprayers (200 litres capacity) and chemicals such as malathion 110E, which will be applied in doses of 0.75...

Evolution Of Concept Of

Through trial and error across centuries, humans gradually came to use tactics such as cultural control, host resistance, and biological control in efforts to protect themselves, livestock, crops, and forests against pests. By the latter half of the 19th century, some pest control strategies that blended these tactics could rightfully be considered to be precursors of modern IPM strategies. During the 20th century, efforts to maintain pests at tolerable levels became more formalized as they became more intensive these efforts can be considered as having progressed along the following four pathways. Pest control was the terminology used during the first half of the 20th century to describe the set of actions taken to avoid, attenuate, or delay the impact of pests. Early in the century, inorganic and botanical insecticides gained increasing prominence as a control tactic against pest insects. By mid-century, use of organosynthetic insecticides supplanted virtually all other tactics in...

Pest management in cotton

Chemcial insecticides remain the major tactic for insect pest control in cotton. Most cotton is routinely examined for insect pest damage with private consultants providing scouting services in the USA and Australia (Fitt, 1994 Luttrell et al., 1994). In Australia, scouts examine up to 60 plants per 100 ha, 2-3 times per week whereas in the USA most fields are scouted 1-2 times per week and samples are generally based on examination of 100 terminal buds and fruiting forms per 20-40 ha. The use of scouting in Andhra Pradesh cotton by both state and federal agencies has reduced the number of pesticide applications from as many as 20 to 3-6 (Raheja, 1995). Cotton consumes 50 of the insecticides used annually in India even though it occupies only 5 of the cultivated area 80 of synthetic pyrethroid consumption is confined to cotton alone. Hillocks (1995) lists the insecticides used in cotton in Africa including Endosulphan for Lygus, American bollworm, spiny bollworm and cotton leafworm...

Pest management in greenhouse crops

A range of pest control measures are used in protected crops including cultural methods, chemical insecticides, biopesticides, host plant resistance and a limited use of pheromones. Pesticides are more widely used for pest control in ornamentals than in vegetables largely because Soil sterilization is used in crops such as tomato largely to control diseases but it also has an impact on Liriomyza spp. (leafminers). Unfortunately red spider mite (T. urticae) and the tomato looper (Chrysadeixis chalcites) tend to survive soil sterilization. The looper can be controlled using Bt while T. urticae requires a combination of chemical control and the use of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Table 10.4). Tomato cultivars that are resistant to white-flies are available (de Ponti et al., 1990). Host plant resistance is a relatively new approach to insect pest control in glasshouses. Levels of resistance in cucum IPM has been promoted and supported in the glasshouse crops industry by a combination of...

Panaceas Paradigms and Pragmatism

The history of pest management (Chapter 1) is a history of panaceas and paradigms some of the greatest failings of pest control have come about quite simply because of the limitations imposed by both. A panacea may be described as a 'universal medicine' a solution to all ills, whereas a paradigm is a common way of thinking, approach, goal or established scientific opinion that is shared by particular scientific communities (Dent, 1995). Examples of paradigms within pest management include IPM (Perkins, 1982 Morse and Buhler, 1997), deterministic models of natural enemy population dynamics, and the pursuance of vertical resistance for insect resistance breeding (Dent, 1995). The use of analytical models to study natural enemy dynamics during the 1970s and early 80s was carried out under the guise of providing a greater understanding of factors influencing the success of biological control but there is little evidence that such studies contributed much to the actual practice of...

Insects And Humans

With the discovery and identification of pheromones (Chapter 13, Section 4.1) and their mimics (more than 1000 are now known), there were high hopes for the development of new, effective and environmentally safe methods of pest control. As initially envisaged, the pheromones, especially sex attractants and aggregation pheromones, potentially might be used in the following pest management situations (1) for monitoring pest population density (2) as lures to attract pests into traps and (3) for permeating the environment, so that individuals are unable to locate mates. For the first of these possibilities, pheromones have been an outstanding success and are now an integral component of many pest management programs, with commercial preparations available for more than 250 species. For some species, especially Coleoptera, the pheromone is used in association with a synergist kairomone (Chapter 13, Section 4.2) for example, the pheromone of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus...

Sustainable use of control measures

The widespread and frequent use of chemical insecticides of organochlorines, organophosphates and pyrethroids has consistently led to the development of insecticide resistance. The problem is particularly acute when the product persists in the environment and hence maintains a high selection pressure. Resistance has been slower to develop to Bt, probably due to its less widespread use and short persistence but resistance has developed (Harris, 1997b). However, increasing sales have led to resistance in the Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella on crucifer crops in South-East Asia (Harris, 1995). The widespread use of most biological or chemical based products for insect control are potentially at risk if used on a sufficiently widespread basis that they cause sufficient selection pressure. The breakdown of host plant resistance is a common enough phenomenon where resistant cultivars are widely planted (Russell, 1978 Johnson and Gilmore, 1980 Robinson, 1987) and now with genetically...

Technological Advances and Commerce

Each of these technological advances provide potential new products for agribusiness to commercialize, market and sell. The pest management agribusiness has been built on pest control agents technologies particularly chemical pesticides and today these and transgenic crops represent the largest share of the business. However, the structure of the industry has changed since the late 1960s when, driven by IPM, new and different pest control technologies were sought, e.g. semiochemicals and biopesticides, which over the years have spawned a multitude of smaller companies specializing in different aspects of pest management. Today there are companies that specialize in pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, target systems, barriers and mulches, decision support software, as well as production and sale of predators, parasitoids and biopesticides based on fungi, entomopathogenic nema-todes, bacteria and viruses. In addition to these are the support industries providing packaging,...

Politics the Public and the Environment

These factors are mainly relevant to the economically developed nations of Europe and USA although, if anything, these countries have until relatively recently been the bastions of pest control dominated by the use of chemical pesticides. The reduced pressure on arable land (due to surpluses) and greater public concern for the environment have been the main driving forces for this change. In Europe enormous stockpiles of grain, meat and dairy products have prompted changes to reduce over-production. The growing public concern about the misuse of pesticides and the general interest in a cleaner, safer environment have pushed the politicians towards an acceptance that environmental issues will influence the way people vote. The factors that influence votes in a democratically run government will subsequently influence policy and thus, the evolution of 'green politics', a political force for environmental issues. IPM, a philosophy of pest management that seeks to...

Integrated Pest Management

Utilizes all suitable techniques either to reduce pest populations and maintain them at levels below those causing economic injury, or to so manipulate the populations that they are prevented from causing such injury (van den Bosch et al., in Huffaker, 1971, p. 378). A key aspect of this definition is the idea of holding populations at or below the level at which they cause significant damage that is, it emphasizes that some level of damage can be tolerated and that the pest population does not have to be eradicated. (See Myers et al., 1998, for a discussion of the costs, benefits and successes of pest-eradication programs.) In IPM the techniques employed must be compatible and the system must be flexible to accommodate changes in an ecosystem. It is an approach to pest control that arose, of necessity, with the realization that, for almost all pests, existing methods individually were not capable of exerting permanent control, gave rise to harmful side effects, or created, by their...

Contemporary biological control

Biological control of insects and mites in greenhouse crops began in England during the late 1920s when Encarsia formosa was used to control greenhouse whitefly on tomatoes.The use of Encarsia stopped, however, after the development of synthetic organic pesticides in the 1940s. Using natural enemies for pest control in greenhouses became popular again in the 1960s when twospotted spider mite populations in European greenhouses became resistant to many pesticides and devastated cucumber crops. Growers introduced predatory mites to control the spider mites, and because pesticide use had to be limited, Encarsia was again utilized for whitefly control on cucumbers and tomatoes. Researchers developed most of the early techniques necessary for biological control in greenhouses at the Glasshouse Crops Research Institute in Littlehampton, England and the Research Station for Vegetables and Fruit Under Glass in Naaldwijk,The Netherlands.Today, researchers in North America also play an...

Termite Controlmanagement

Surveys of pest control firms in the United States reveal that poor building practices, particularly wood in contact with soil and cracks in concrete foundations, lead to many of the subterranean termite infestations. Experimental efforts have been made to control soil-dwelling termites using biological control agents, such as argentine ants and nematodes. However, these methods have not yet been proven effective. Potter, M. F. (1997). Termites. In Mallis Handbook of Pest Control (A.

Inhibitors Of Chitin Hydrolysis

Most of the inhibitors of family 18 chitinases are natural products that include diverse structurally unrelated compounds like pseudo-trisaccharides (allosami-dins), cyclic peptides (agrifin, argadin), alkaloids and methylxanthines (Andersen et al., 2005). Although quite potent, the majority of the compounds (except allosamidins) display broad inhibitory spectrum, which probably has posed limits to their development as pest control agents. The best known, and the most extensively investigated inhibitor, is allosamidin (Fig. 9) isolated from mycelia of Streptomyces sp. or synthetically produced (Isogai et al., 1989 Nishimoto et al., 1991 Sakuda et al., 1986, 1993 Sommers et al., 1987 Takahashi et al., 1992). Allosamidin is a competitive pseudo-trisaccha-ride inhibitor composed of two p-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine residues attached to

Pest management in soybean

The soybean Glycine max is grown in at least 45 countries with a production of 113,069,000 tonnes. The major producers are the USA (44 ), Brazil (21 ), China (12 ) and Argentina (11 ) (Soyatech Inc, 1995). To produce a soybean crop that yields economically anywhere in the world farmers must control pathogens, insect pests and weeds (Sinclair et al., 1997). For many years from the 1940s onwards, pest control in soybean relied on chemical insecticides, but for the last two decades concerns about farm worker safety, environmental pollution, pest resistance to agrichemicals and secondary pest outbreaks have contributed to the acceptance of IPM as the approach of choice among soybean growers. The IPM approach advocated by Sinclair et al. (1997) involves the components outlined in Fig. 10.1 which is based on the active participation of the growers. Although these guidelines for IPM in soybean are set out for pathogens and

Durable Crop Resistance to Insects

Refugia work on the basis that the individuals that survive 'exposure' to the trans-genic resistant crop are double recessive individuals and these are likely to mate with susceptible individuals from the refuge areas, the cross of which maintains a low number of double recessives in the next generation thereby preventing the build up of resistant populations. In the case of Bt cotton, a system of 'refugia' has been introduced whereby growers are obliged for every 100 acres of Bt varieties, either to plant 25 acres (i.e. 20 of the total acreage) to varieties which do not contain the Bt gene, and on which they are able to use standard insect control measures or alternatively to plant 4 acres with non-Bt varieties and leave these untreated with any control measure (Merritt, 1998). For less crop specific pest species, refugia In the same way that genetic manipulation is not a panacea for insect pest control, there are of course situations in which breeding for horizontal host plant...

Area Wide Integrated Pest Management Awipm Principles Practice and Prospects

Joint FAO IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Insect Pest Control Sub-Programme, IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria 2Plant Production and Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla ABSTRACT Integrated pest management (IPM) has remained the dominant paradigm of pest control for the last 50 years. IPM has been endorsed by essentially all the multilateral environmental agreements that have transformed the global policy framework of natural resource management, agriculture, and trade. The integration of a number of different control tactics into IPM systems can be done in ways that greatly facilitate the achievement of the goals either of field-by-field pest management, or of area-wide (AW) pest management, which is the management of the total pest population within a delimited area. For several decades IPM and AW pest control have been seen as competing paradigms with different...

Biological Control Through Augmentation

Commercial augmentative biological control starts with the discovery of a natural enemy that research suggests may be effective. The natural enemy must attack an important pest efficiently, be able to be reared under mass production conditions, be easily harvested and able to survive transit stress, and be competitive in price with other forms of pest control available to growers. outdoor crops The scientific use of augmentative natural enemy releases in outdoor crops is best established in northern Europe for control of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) in corn. Use is greatest in Germany and France, where over 3200 ha is protected annually with Trichogramma releases. This fraction is, however, small compared with the total corn acreage in Europe, and use of biological control is concentrated principally where pesticide use is not allowed because of concern for health of people living near cornfields. Natural enemy releases for mite control have...

Isometopus intrusus Herrich Schaeffer 1835

The conservation of Isometopus intrusus must be addressed specifically towards the preservation of the habitat that provides shelter to it. It is very important to preserve wide areas big enough to guarantee the maintenance of the characteristics of this habitat, particularly the river banks forests, since they are especially fragile. Agriculture and urban or tourist developments do not imply the complete degradation of the environment. When growing fruit trees suitable for I. intrusus, the use of selective pesticides that do not harm the wild fauna is recommended, as well as keeping some of them in the marginal zones only for preservation, not for production. It cannot be neglected that I. intrusus contributes to the depredation of aphids and other small arthropods, so its presence in crops can be developed within integrated or biological pest control programs.

Inorganic insecticides

Inorganic insecticides have a long history of use in household and stored-food pest control this group includes arsenic, boron, mercury, and sulfur. They are stable compounds and toxic to a broad range of animals. Sulfur is one of the oldest pesticides, and is toxic as a contactor stomach poison to mites, spiders, and scale insects, and as a stomach poison for some caterpillars. Sulfur dusts and sprays are also fungicidal. Boron compounds have a long history in household insect control as nonselective insecticides. The mode of action is a stomach poison when a lethal dose is ingested. The target sites may be the mid- and hindgut in the hindgut borates may disrupt water regulation. Borates are also used as a contact poison because borate dusts absorb insect cuticle wax. Surface applications of boric acid and water dilutions of borates act as antiphagostimulants for insects such as wood-infesting beetles and termites. Boron is toxic to animals and humans, and the tolerable daily intake...

Inhibition Of Chitin Polymerization

Competitive inhibitors with structural resemblance to the substrate UDP-GlcNAc effectively block chitin polymerization and a few were commercialized as pest control agents. Some other compounds either directly or indirectly affect chitin polymerization to a certain degree. CS inhibition was studied using in vivo (whole organisms, isolated organs and integument tissues as well as cultured cells) or in vitro (cell-free preparations) systems.

Relevance to the Sterile Insect Technique SIT

Area-wide integrated pest control programmes using mating disruption may be made more efficient by using sterile insects as mobile dispensers of adhesive particles, carrying behaviour-modifying chemicals. When they are coated with sex pheromone, they can achieve control by mating disruption, in which they act as female mimics, outcompet-ing the females (or males) in the natural pop lower than in conventional mating disruption systems or lure-and-kill techniques (3) as the method depends on the use of odours and visual stimuli to which the particular pest is strongly attracted, it is also highly selective, protecting, in particular, beneficial insects (4) because sterile insects are used as carriers for insecticides or behaviour-modifying compounds they pose no risk to the build-up of pest populations all mating result in sterile eggs (5) the insects are biodegradable and do not need to be removed from the crop, unlike plastic traps and dispensers commonly used in insect control (6)...

Important Families Of Termites

Lower termite family depicted. (Adapted, with permission from FMC Corp., from The Mallis Handbook of Pest Control, 1997.) FIGURE 2 Life cycle of the termite. Lower termite family depicted. (Adapted, with permission from FMC Corp., from The Mallis Handbook of Pest Control, 1997.)

Commercial Mediterranean Fruit Fly Rearing Facilities Is the Private Sector Here to Stay

Two decades passed between the development of the concept of the SIT and its first large-scale use against the Mediterranean fruit fly in the 1970s in southern Mexico (Klassen and Curtis 2005). The next two decades experienced an increasing demand for sterile Mediterranean fruit flies but the private sector's interest in mass-rearing operations was only manifested in 2000 with the establishment of the first private company, InSecta Ltd in the UK. In only five years, three private companies decided to invest in this field. Their sustained interest and long-term expansion in the market will largely be influenced by (1) the plans and capabilities of competing government-funded facilities to supply sterile flies at semi-subsidized prices to meet a growing demand in the Mediterranean Region, (2) an increasing demand for environment-friendly pest control methods due to consumer pressure and more stringent laws regulating pest levels and insecticide residues, (3) the awareness of the...

Introductory Remarks

The principles of AW-IPM are addressed in this book's introductory chapter. The chapter argues that each fundamental component of classical IPM, be it a cultural, biological or chemical control tactic, applied against an entire insect population (total population management) will lead in most cases to more sustainable pest control as compared to a localized farm-by-farm approach. Some fundamental management and strategic challenges of AW-IPM programmes are likewise addressed, including the make or break environmental and economic issues.


'Pest control constitutes an ancient war, waged by man for 4000 years or more against a great variety of often small and remarkably persistent enemies. Suprisingly, although the war is old, its dynamics and the nature of the principal protagonists seem poorly understood. Even the objectives, at least of man, are ill-defined. It is as though man, in the heat of battle, has not had the time to analyse in any sophisticated fashion the conflict in which he finds himself. Battles have been won and lost but lessons have been learned slowly and painfully. It is only in recent years that people have begun to ask the fundamental questions of principle and to raise doubts about implicit beliefs and objectives.'


Biological control relies on the interactions of living organisms with the target pests and the environment. It is therefore more complex than certain traditional pest control practices, such as the use of chemical pesticides.This introductory section provides basic information on the biology of insects, the natural enemies of insects, and the methods used to implement biological control. There is also a discussion of the economics of pest control as it relates to biological control.Terms in boldface are in the glossary at the end of the publication.


Economics plays a major role in grower decisions to participate in AW-IPM programmes. The potential for economic growth can motivate growers and communities to become educated in the AW approach. Such local leaders may take concerted action to achieve coordination of pest control actions at the village, subdistrict, and district levels, and, thereby, scale up IPM from independent field-by-field efforts to AW implementation.

Urban ecosystems

Suburbia is composed of planned communities and structured greenspace some of these peripheral areas are considered the affluent fringe. Houses and other buildings are surrounded by ornamental shrubs, trees, and turfgrass, and the landscape includes flower gardens, and in some neighborhoods there may be water fountains and swimming pools. As in the septic fringe, there are habitats in the affluent fringe suitable for insect vectors of disease, and successful populations of rodents and wildlife species. Planned developmentand improved living conditions often mean reduced diligence and less compliance with insect control programs. In these neighborhoods there may be more rather than fewer breeding sites for pests, such as mosquitoes, black flies, wasps, and beetles. The mix ofvegetation and the availability of food and harborage

Food Losses to Pests

In the USA, the proportion of annual crop production lost by pests is estimated to be similar to world pest losses or about 37 (13 to insects, 12 to plant pathogens, and 12 to weeds) (Pimentel et al. 1991). Since total crop production in the USA is valued at about USD 160 000 million year (USDA 2004), pests are destroying an estimated USD 60 000 million year in this country despite all efforts to control them with pesticides plus a wide array of non-chemical controls. Currently, the USA invests about USD 8000 million in pesticide applications which saves about USD 30 000 million per year in crops while the use of non-chemical controls like natural enemies also helps to save crops valued at an estimated USD 30 000 million per year (Pimentel 1997). In general, there is a USD three to four return per USD invested in pest control (Pimentel 1997). Without pesticides and non-chemical controls, the losses of crops due to pests would be even more severe than occurs at present. Oerke et al....

Organic insecticides

Cyclodiene and gamma-HCH insecticides have played an important part in household and structural pest control, especially in controlling wood-infesting insects such as termites and beetles. These are very stable compounds when placed in the soil or applied to structural wood. The well-known compounds in this group are aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, and lindane. These compounds are neurotoxi-cants and produce spontaneous and repetitive discharges at the synapse, which result in tremors, convulsions, and paralysis of the target insect. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were originally made for agriculture, but many have been used for household and structural insect control. Organophosphates kill insects and vertebrates by binding with acetylcholinesterase in synaptic junctions of the nervous system. This results in a continuous flow of electrical-chemical signals along the length of the nerve, which results in repeated muscle contraction. A large number of...

Insect Transgenesis

Insect transformation is achieved through the use of transposable elements. The attraction of transposable element-mediated transgenesis to those wishing to use genetics in pest control is that new mutants can be quickly and easily constructed provided that a transposable element can be found that introduces genes into the target insect species. Indeed, an insect heterozygous for the new mutation can be made in one generation and homozygotes pure breeding for this allele within a further generation. These can then be tested for their suitability for use in pro

Cockroach Control

When infestations occur, there are two main methods of control. Nonchemical methods include trapping and vacuuming cockroaches, both of which can significantly reduce the size of an infestation. In addition, freezing, overheating, or flooding structures with a nontoxic gas can be used to kill the pests. Some of the latter procedures require specialized equipment and are best done by professional pest control operators.

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