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carefully in relation to'il ■i.IRM and pest species'i--'■ ■ ■■ -V -V -V -V -V -V -V -V -V ■-'■

AVOID insecticides

Fig. 10.2. Integration of some of the tactics that can be used in an IPM programme. In some countries it is possible to deploy pheromones for confusion or 'lure and kill' as well as monitoring pest populations (after Matthews, 1997b).

Box 10.1. Methods used in the IPM cotton plots at Wenshang in China (Anon., 1999).

Ploughing and irrigation of the fields after harvest for control of overwintering Helicoverpa pupae

Minimal use of organophosphate insecticides on wheat to encourage build up of natural enemies which later migrate to cotton

Irrigation during March-May to increase humidity to help control red spider mites

Dipping growing tips of seedlings in insecticides for aphid control in place of sprays

Use of Bacillus thuringiensis against bollworms

Topping and bud thinning to increase boll shedding rate and number of fruiting points per plant

Minimal insecticide use in the standard practice plots. Although such approaches are yet to be tested on a large scale, the involvement of farmers in such studies increases the likelihood of widespread adoption of similar approaches. New initiatives to implement IPM are now underway in cotton growing areas most affected by problems of insecticide resistance in China, India and Pakistan (Matthews, 1997b).

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