Programme Design

The problem specification, definition phase of a pest management programme, if carried out well, is a rather involved process requiring a large number of inputs utilizing multi-disciplinary expertise. However, to a large extent IPM programmes are devised without this comprehensive approach to problem framing. There are two fundamental reasons for this: the first, is that there is no theoretical framework to aid in the design process of a pest management programme; and the second is that there are no organizational structures available in which the necessary definition phase of development can be considered. The lack of a theoretical framework is evident when questions are asked along the lines of 'on what basis should I select a technique for the control of this pest?', 'is this control strategy sustainable?', or 'which combinations of control techniques are compatible for this pest?' At present there exists only a rudimentary theoretical basis on which to answer such questions (e.g. Southwood, 1977a). This need for a theoretical framework in IPM and the form it should take is considered further throughout this chapter. The second reason why an appropriate definition phase of a project rarely takes place is concerned with the types of funding provided for research and the use of inappropriate organizational structures for IPM research.

The emphasis on specialization in research has meant that research projects are considered for funding on a piecemeal basis and on individual merit. There is little or no coordination between projects and in some cases different institutes working on similar projects do not know of the

Table 9.2. The general type of information that should be collected from an exploratory survey (Shaner et al., 1982).

A. Dates of data collection Collector

B. Farm access

Distance to nearest road usable by: e.g. motorcycle, 4-wheel drive vehicle, truck

Distance to nearest all-weather road

Distance to other transportation facilities: e.g. river, canal, airfield, railroad

C. Farm land status (hectares)

Privately owned


or tribal land


Note: Totals for C and D should be equal E. Other information about land

Number and sizes of land parcels in farm

Distances from farmhouse to field

Percentages of total farmland suitable for:

Motorized equipment


Access to other land and resources: e.g. community pasture and forest, roadside pasture

D. Farm land use (hectares)


Other tillable purposes





F. Farm enterprises: Major enterprise Minor enterprise Crops: e.g. species, varieties, principal uses.


Root crops



Other tree crops

Animals: e.g. breeds, sex, number, principal uses







Non-agricultural enterprises:

e.g. spinning, weaving, pottery making.

H. Power, equipment and tools




I. Farm buildings and facilities

Storage facilities

Processing facilities

Livestock housing and yards

Irrigation facilities

Table 9.2. Continued


J. Marketing of output

K. Acquisition of inputs

L. Estimates of income, expenditure and savings

Farm income

Farm expenditure

Off-farm income


M. Type of household: e.g. nuclear or extended

Ethnic background

Number in household

Rights and obligations of members by age and sex . Characteristics of members:

Literacy and education


Knowledge: e.g. farming and off-farm experiences Beliefs: e.g. what the person thinks is true Attitudes: e.g. feelings, emotions, sentiments

Behaviour: e.g. past actions



N. Miscellaneous: e.g. help from others, obligations other's work. While this approach to funding research may be highly appropriate for promoting innovative, specialist projects within a single discipline it is much less suitable for promoting the objectives of a coordinated multidisciplinary research effort such as that required for a research programme in IPM. Even if the separate components needed for an integrated approach were funded, there would still be little hope for integration because no organizational structure exists to coordinate the efforts and direct them towards a common goal. This lack of an appropriate organizational structure for management of research projects has important implications during both the definition and the research phases of a programme. During the definition phase it is important that a common paradigm of the problem be developed to integrate the individual goals of each research group and to provide a common objective (Dent, 1992, 1995). In the absence of this, each group will carry out their own research in isolation from every other group. This will result in a number of separate solutions to a number of unrelated problems, because each group will perceive their objectives differently according to their own perceptions and expertise. Thus, organizational structures have an important role to play in pest management research to provide an appropriate institutional framework within which integration can take place.

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