The Ultimate Guide To Get Rid Of Silverfish

The Ultimate Guide To Get Rid Of Silverfish

This is the comprehensive guide you need to get rid of silverfish for good! It contains step-by-step instructions on how to get rid of your silverfish problem and shows you how to take measures to ensure that silverfish won't return in the future. Here is what this guide will provide. A clear understanding of why you have silverfish in your home. A list of the conditions silverfish need in order to survive and directions on how to alter these conditions. How to identify problem areas in your home (Problem areas are places that silverfish use to access your home or use as safe refuge during the daytime.) Read more...

The Ultimate Guide To Get Rid Of Silverfish Overview

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Silverfish Control Secrets Revealed

Here is what you'll get instant access to in Silverfish Control Secrets Revealed: Silverfish control secrets compiled and found only in this guide. An explanation of the root causes of chronic silverfish infestation in your home . and what you Need to do about it. Warning Two things you should Never do when trying to get rid of a silverfish infestation (that will actually make it worse.) Easy to follow, step-by-step instructions to quickly eradicate a silverfish infestation. 2 little-known, simple yet effective designs for homemade silverfish traps that work! How to quickly spot problem areas in your home, such as access or hiding points, and how to fix them immediately. 6 time-tested and proven strategies to prevent a future silverfish infestation in your home. 7 of the best chemical-free alternatives to get rid of silverfish Fast!

Silverfish Control Secrets Revealed Overview

Contents: EBook
Author: Cliff Stanfield
Official Website: www.silverfishcontrol.net

Bristletails Versus Silverfish

With their shiny, scaly bodies, bristletails closely resemble silverfish (order Thysanura). Bristletails, however, have tube-shaped bodies, while those of silverfish are flattened. The eyes of bristletails are quite large and meet over the top of the head, but those of silverfish are much smaller and are widely separated. And each jaw of a bristletail has only one point of attachment to the head, while those of silverfish and all other insects connect to the head at two points.

Lepisma saccharina

Physical characteristics Adult silverfish measure up to 0.4 inches (10.2 millimeters) in length. Their bodies are covered with silvery scales. Geographic range Silverfish probably originally came from tropical Asia the species is now found living with people worldwide. Diet Immature and adult silverfish are fond of flour and starch and are sometimes found in cereal they also feed on muslin, starched collars and cuffs, lace, carpets, fur, and leather. They are also cannibalistic, feeding on molted silverfish skins and dead and injured individuals. Immature and adult silverfish are fond of flour and starch and are sometimes found in cereal they also feed on muslin, starched collars and cuffs, lace, carpets, fur, and leather. (Mark Smith Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Behavior and reproduction Silverfish forage, or search, for food at night. They spend their days hidden in dark, protected places. Silverfish and people Silverfish are considered household pests because...

Pronunciation Guide for Scientific Names

Labidura herculeana luh-BIH-der-uh her-KYOO-lee-ah-nuh Lepidoptera LEP-uh-DOP-tuh-ruh Lepisma saccharina luh-PIZ-muh SAK-uh-REE-nuh Lethocerus maximus luh-THAW-suh-ruhs mak-SIH-muhs Limulus polyphemus lim-YUH-luhs PAW-lih-FUH-muhs Liposcelis bostrychophila LIP-uh-SEL-is buh-STRIK-uh-FEE-lee-uh

Ik 4 I Am I Li Ks And 370 Sitciks

_____ of silverfish that make up the opposite page), the abdominal segments have projections called styles. Silverfish vary in appearance more than bristletails and occupy a wider range of habitats. Males deposit sperm on silken threads, placed on the ground for females to pick up with their genitalia. Kggs are laid in cracks and crevices. Like bristletails, silverfish nymphs are ametabolous and develop without obvious metamorphosis.

Overview Of The Phylum Arthropoda

The Arthropoda is a phylum more diverse than any other living or extinct animal taxon. Counted among this immense assemblage are beetles, butterflies, silverfish, centipedes, scorpions, mites, sea spiders, crabs, sow bugs, and barnacles, and many other common names too numerous to mention. Arthropods are the numerically dominant metazoan on land and rank among the most prominent benthic (bottom-dwelling)

Class Insecta Winged and Wingless Insects

This small group of 600 or so primitive species includes bristletails, silverfish, and rock jumpers. These are small to medium-sized insects (5 25 mm) without compound eyes. They have an 11-segmented abdomen with a prominent caudal filament between two terminal cerci. Fertilization is indirect, and molting continues after the reproductive state has been reached (unlike insects). No pronounced metamorphosis is evident from subadult to adult stages. Thysanurans are swift, agile runners (probably to avoid predators) and are omnivorous scavengers of animal and plant matter. Most live in litter of forests and grasslands, but silverfish also infest houses, where they can extensively damage clothing and books.

Some reasons for insect species richness

High persistence of species or lineages or the numerical abundance of individual species are considered as indicators of insect success. However, insects differ from vertebrates by at least one popular measure of success body size. Miniaturization is the insect success story most insects have body lengths of 1-10 mm, with a body length around 0.3 mm of mymarid wasps (parasitic on eggs of insects) being unexceptional. At the other extreme, the greatest wingspan of a living insect belongs to the tropical American owlet moth, Thysania agrippina (Noctuidae), with a span of up to 30 cm, although fossils show that some insects were appreciably larger than their extant relatives. For example, an Upper Carboniferous silverfish, Ramsdele-pidion schusteri (Zygentoma), had a body length of 6 cm compared to a modern maximum of less than 2 cm. The wingspans of many Carboniferous insects exceeded 45 cm, and a Permian dragonfly, Meganeuropsis americana (Protodonata), had a wingspan of 71 cm. Notably...

Apterygote Hexapods

NICOLETIIDAE, LEPIDOTRICHIDAE, and MAINDRONIIDAE), of which only the first two are of any size. Though most Lepismatidae live in litter, under bark, etc., the family includes a number of domiciliary species (found in buildings) that have been transported worldwide by human activity, including the common silverfish, Lepismodes inquilinus, and the firebrat, Thermobia domestica. The former prefers warm and humid environments and is often found in places such as bookcases, cupboards, and bathrooms. Firebrats, in contrast, live in hot, dry environments, for example, in the vicinity of fireplaces, furnaces and boilers, and in bakeries. They are highly resistant to desiccation. Both species may cause considerable damage to books, clothing, and foods that contain starch or cellulose, and they are among the few animals that produce an intrinsic gut cellulase. The Nicoletiidae, which are distinguished from Lepismatidae by not having compound eyes, live principally in caves or underground though...

Behavior And Reproduction

Although the females of some species of silverfish can reproduce without mating, most species require males and females to produce fertilized eggs. Males deposit a sperm packet on the ground, beneath a silken thread. The packet is later picked up by the female. Females lay their eggs inside cracks and between spaces in leaf litter. The eggs are about 0.04 inches (1 millimeter) long and are longer than they are wide. At first they are soft and white, but after several hours they turn yellow and then brown. The larvae resemble small adults. Silver-fish continue to molt, or shed their outer skeletons, throughout their lives and may live for up to six years.

Thysanura Introduction

Silverfish are 6-18 mm long and wingless. They are slender, dorsoventrally flattened, and tapered posteriorly, and they have three tail-like appendages at the end of the abdomen. Their body is usually covered with shiny, fish-like scales, which is the origin of their common name. Antennae are long and slender the eyes are small and widely separated, and sometimes absent. Mouthparts are mandibulate, and considered to be chewing. Development progresses through distinct stages. At the third or fourth molt, the young develop scales that color their body. Thysanurans are long-lived insects that continue to molt after becoming sexually mature. They are mostly nocturnal and omnivorous scavengers. Natural populations occur in leaflitter or under bark, in caves, in the burrows ofcertain mammals, or in association with ant and termite nests. Mating behaviors of Lepisma saccharina and Thermobia domestica have been documented. Courtship involves mutual contact with the antennae (antennation) and...

Apterygote Insecta former Thysanura sensu lato

Order Zygentoma (silverfish) (see also Taxobox 3) Zygentomans are medium-sized, dorsoventrally flattened, and primitively wingless (apterygotes). Eyes and ocelli are present, reduced or absent, the antennae are multisegmented. The mouthparts are ventrally to slightly forward projecting and include a special form of double-articulated (dicondylous) mandibles, and five-segmented maxillary palps. The abdomen continues the even contour of the thorax, and includes ventral muscle-containing styles (representing reduced limbs) on at least segments 7-9, sometimes on 2-9, and with eversible vesicles medial to the styles on some segments. Cerci are multisegmented and subequal to the length of the median caudal appendage. Development occurs without change in body form.

Lifehistory Patterns And Phases

Embryonic Development Insect

The primitive developmental pattern, ametaboly, is for the hatchling to emerge from the egg in a form essentially resembling a miniature adult, lacking only genitalia. This pattern is retained by the primitively wingless orders, the Archaeognatha (bristletails Taxobox 2) and Zygentoma (silverfish Taxobox 3), in which adults continue to molt after sexual maturity. In contrast, all pterygote insects undergo a more or less

Ametabolous Development

In Thysanura (and other primitive hexapods), which as adults remain wingless, the degree of change from juvenile to adult form is slight and is manifest primarily in increased body size and development of functional genitalia. Juvenile and adult apterygotes inhabit the same ecological niche, and the insects continue to grow and molt after reaching sexual maturity. The number of molts through which an insect passes is very high and variable. For example, in the firebrat, Thermobia domestica, between 45 and 60 molts have been recorded.

Arthropods And Insects

The insects are the largest single group of animals, with over 800,000 identified species, far more than all the other animals put together. New species are reported at the rate of about 5,000 per year, and total number estimates range from 1 to 10 million. It is estimated there are 1018 individuals alive at any time. They are divided into the Apterygota, primitive wingless insects (springtails and silverfish) which have as yet received little chemical study and the Pterygota, or winged insects, which form the great majority. The latter in turn are divided into the Exopterygota or Hemimetabola, which hatch from eggs to nymphs which closely resemble their final adult form or imago (grasshoppers, cockroaches, termites, bugs, stick insects, etc.) (Figure 1.5) and Endopterygota or Holometabola, which hatch from egg to larvae which may have a very different form and habitat from the adult. They then go into a resting form called the pupa, while the tissues are completely remodelled and...

Aesthetic injury

The economic threshold is a measured pest density at which control actions should be taken to prevent a pest population from reaching the economic injury level. In the urban environment, aesthetic considerations rather than economic ones are often critical in initiating control actions. Aesthetic injury may be associated with a specific number of individual pests, such as sighting one to two cockroaches within 24 h indoors, having three to four mosquito bites outdoors in 4 h, or sighting two to four wasps outdoors in the vicinity of the house. Indoors, the most common arthropods that lead to a control action at a low density are cockroaches, silverfish, moth flies, and carpet beetles (adults and larvae). Tolerance for seasonal pests, such as ants, fruit flies, cluster flies, and fungus gnats may be somewhat higher, perhaps due to their regular occurrence. Outdoors, aggregations ofinsects often lead to control actions common pests in this category are boxelder bug,...

Older Than Dinosaurs

Arthropods were swimming in lakes, crawling on land, and flying through the air long before dinosaurs. In fact, millipedes are one of the oldest land animals on Earth and have been around for about four hundred million years. Insects are more than 380 million years old. Scientists know this by studying their fossils (FAH-suhls), or remains of animals that lived long ago, usually found set into rock or earth. Scientists who study fossils are called paleontologists (PAY-li-un-TA-luh-jists). Paleontologists study fossils to understand how life has developed and changed over time. The location and chemical makeup of fossils helps paleontologists to determine their age. By studying fossils scientists know that some groups of organisms, such as horseshoe crabs, millipedes, silverfish, and cockroaches, have changed very little over millions of years. The process of organisms changing over time is called evolution (EH-vuh-LU-shun). Organisms must adapt in form and behavior to survive in an...

Transformations

There are four basic types of metamorphosis. Some millipedes and centipedes, as well relatives of insects known as pro-turans, develop by anamorphosis (ANN-eh-MORE-feh-sihs). Their larvae hatch from eggs with fewer body segments than they will have as adults. Additional segments and legs are added as they molt. When wingless diplurans, springtails, silverfish, and bristletails molt, the only noticeable change is that they are larger. They molt many times as larvae and will continue to molt after they reach adulthood. Grasshoppers, true bugs, drag-onflies, and some other winged insects develop by gradual metamorphosis. The larvae strongly resemble the adults when they hatch, but they lack developed wings and reproductive organs. These insects stop molting once they reach the adult stage. Beetles, butterflies, moths, flies, fleas, ants, bees, wasps, and others develop by complete metamorphosis. They have four very distinct stages egg, larva, pupa, and adult. They do not continue to grow...

Behavior

Other groups of arthropods do not mate directly. For example, male spiders must first transfer their sperm to special containers on their pedipalps before they are ready to mate. They use the pedipalps to put the sperm directly into the female's reproductive organs. Male horseshoe crabs climb on the back of the females and release their sperm onto her eggs as she lays them in the sand. Silverfish males deposit a drop of sperm on the ground and then guide the female over it so she can pick it up with her reproductive organs. Male millipedes, centipedes, scorpions, and other arachnids put their sperm packets on the ground. Then they engage in a variety of courtship behaviors to guide the females over the packets. In some arthropods the females must find these packets without the help of males.

Insect Biodiversity

High persistence of species or lineages or the numerical abundance of individual species are considered as indicators of insect success. However, insects differ from vertebrates by at least one popular measure of success body size. Miniaturization is the insect success story most insects have body lengths of 1-10 mm, with a body length around 0.3 mm of mymarid wasps (parasitic on eggs of insects) being unexceptional. At the other extreme, the greatest wingspan of a living insect belongs to the tropical American owlet moth, Thysania agrippina (Noctuidae), with a span of up to 30 cm, although fossils show that some insects were appreciably larger than their extant relatives. For example, an Upper Carboniferous silverfish, Ramsdelepi-dion schusteri (Zygentoma), had a body length of 6 cm compared to a modern maximum of less than 2 cm. The wingspans of many Carboniferous insects exceeded 45 cm, and a Permian dragonfly, Meganeuropsis americana (Protodonata), had a wingspan of71 cm. Notably...

Symbiosis

Nest sharing, or inquilinism, is a type of symbiosis wherein both partners are insects (Kistner 1982). Examples are certain silverfish, millipedes, beetles, mites, and cockroaches, called myrmecophiles, that share a common dwelling with ants. Other social insects are likewise visited by termito-philes, melittophiles, and sphecophiles, depending on whether they are termites, bees, or wasps, respectively. There are many variations in the degree of closeness in the association and its specific nature (Kistner 1979). In the Neotropics, army ants and leaf cutter ants are frequent hosts (see chap. 12). The visitors live on the debris, scraps of food, and even corpses of ants. This is mutualistic coexistence, the ants profiting by the nest debris removal, the guests by a reliable food source.

The Abdomen

First seven abdominal segments of adults (the pre-genital segments) are similar in structure and lack appendages. However, apterygotes (bristletails and silverfish) and many immature aquatic insects have abdominal appendages. Apterygotes possess a pair of styles - rudimentary appendages that are serially homologous with the distal part of the thoracic legs - and, mesally, one or two pairs of protrusible (or exsertile) vesicles on at least some abdominal segments. These vesicles are derived from the coxal and trochanteral endites (inner annulated lobes) of the ancestral abdominal appendages (Fig. 8.4b). Aquatic larvae and nymphs may have gills laterally on some to most abdominal segments (Chapter 10). Some of these may be serially homologous with thoracic wings (e.g. the plate gills of mayfly nymphs) or with other leg derivatives. Spiracles typically are present on segments 1-8, but reductions in number occur frequently in association with modifications of the tracheal system (section...

Termites

There are some true commensal termito-philes also among the insects and arthropods. These are other termites, silverfish, scale insects (Termitococcus, Margarodidae), and even tiger beetles that live in intimate association with termite colonies. Many beetles, particularly some rove beetles, are highly modified for life among termites (Kistner 1969). Abondoned nests of one kind of termite can be taken over by termites of a diff erent species.

The Thorax

Pterothoracic Notum Insects

The thorax is composed of three segments the first or prothorax, the second or mesothorax, and the third or metathorax. Primitively, and in apterygotes (bristletails and silverfish) and immature insects, these segments are similar in size and structural complexity. In most winged insects the mesothorax and metathorax are enlarged relative to the prothorax and form a pterothorax, bearing the wings and associated musculature. Wings occur only on the second and third segments in extant insects although some fossils have prothoracic winglets (Fig. 8.2) and homeotic mutants may develop prothoracic wings or wing buds. Almost all nymphal and adult insects have three pairs of thoracic legs - one pair per segment. Typically the legs are used for walking, although various other functions and associated modifications occur (section 2.4.1). Openings (spiracles) of the gas-exchange, or tracheal, system (section 3.5) are present laterally on the second and third thoracic segments at most with one...

Gastrulation

The anterior, while the gastrulation furrow progresses toward the posterior. Most often the presumptive mesoderm lies along the ventral midline, but in the apterygote thysanuran Thermobia domestica, cells migrate inward from every part of the germ band. Regardless of the mechanism of gastrulation, the end result is a bilayered embryo, with mesodermal precursors underlying the ectoderm.

Rove Beetles

The gaster and compressed anterior abdominal segments, like the nodes. A typical genus in the Neotropics associated with the famihar Eciton army ants is Ecitophya (fig. 9 4e). They also have specialized glands for secreting pheromonelike substances that pacify their benefactors, whom they groom and feed. They feed on booty and the larval brood of the host ants (Akre and Retten-meyer 1966). Although many have typical rove beetle shapes, some may resemble silverfish or be trilobitelike in body form (Jermitonannus), and a common feature of termitophilous forms is oddly shaped body outgrowths (Spirachtha) many hold the abdomen erect or bent forward over the thorax, as in Termitogaster (fig. 9.4d), a widespread genus that lives in the nests of nasute termites (Seevers 1957).

Australia

Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Lucerne flea Macleay's specter Mantid lacewing Mediterranean fruitfly Moth lacewing Oriental cockroach Pea aphid Scolopender Silverfish Spider bat fly

Macedonia

Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Mediterranean fruitfly Pea aphid Sacred scarab Silverfish

Morocco

Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid German cockroach Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Mediterranean fruitfly Sacred scarab Scolopender Silverfish

Info

Filter flies (Psychodidae) 182 filter fly (Psychoda albipennis) 182 fire ants, grease ants, piss ants (Solenopsis) 256-259 pest status 256 species 256 venom 257 black imported fire ant 258 grease ant 257 piss ant 257 red imported fire ant 257 southern fire ant 258 thief ant 257 tropical fire ant 257 see also Solenopsis in Family, genus, species index firebrat (Thermobia domestica) 384 development 384 development 384 distribution 384 habitats 385 fireflies (Lampyridae) 106 larvae 106 light-producing 107 food 107 Asian firefly 107 Blue Mountains firefly 107 eastern firefly 107 European firefly 107 glow-worm 107 western firefly 107 see also Lampyridae in Family, genus, species index firewood Coleoptera 84, 85,105, 121

Common Bristletails

SILVERFISH Family Lepismatidae Identification Compound eyes small and widely separated. Ocelli absent. Tarsi 3- or 4-segmented. Coxae without styli. The Silverfish, Lepisma saccharina Linn., and Firebrat, Thermobia domestica (Packard), the most commonly encountered members of this group, often are pests in houses and other buildings, where they feed on all sorts of starchy substances. They are 10-12 mm. The Silverfish is silvery, usually occurs in cool damp situations. The Firebrat is brownish, inhabits warm situations around furnaces and steam pipes.

Thysanurans

There are two suborders, the silverfish (Zygentoma) and the bristletails (Microco-ryphia) (Remington 1954). These categories have been variously recognized and named by taxonomists, and some confusion remains on the best way to classify the group. Silverfish Silverfish (so called because of their shiny, slick appearance) are familiar cosmopolitan household pests. However, the classic domestic species, Lepisma saccharina, has been found in Latin America only sporadically in the cooler highlands of Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina. They apparently do not tolerate humid, tropical conditions. Lepisma wasmanni is a soil-dwelling resident of the lomas of coastal Peru but seems to have been introduced from the Mediterranean region. The long-tailed house silverfish (Ctenole-pisma longicaudata, fig. 4.10c) is the species most commonly encountered indoors in Latin America (Wygodzinsky 1967). It has a thick body covering of slick, slate-colored scales. It usually occurs in damp situations, but its...

Dicondylia

The traditional taxon Thysanura, or Apterygota, has been recognized as an unnatural group for decades because silverfish (Zygentoma) are more closely related to the winged insects (Pterygota) than to the bristletails (e.g., Snodgrass, 1935). In his monumental work on the phylogeny and classification of insects, Hennig (1953, 1969, 1981) proposed the name Dicondylia for the group uniting the silverfish with the winged insects. Recent molecular studies have also supported the Dicondylia as a lineage (e.g., Wheeler et al., 2001). The hallmark character of this group is the presence of a novel, secondary articulation to the mandible (i.e., the dicondylic mandible) (Figure 5.9). This second articulation results in the movement of the mandible being roughly confined to a single plane of motion rather than the rotating motion possible in Archaeognatha. It is homologous to the monocondylic joint in Archaeognatha and Entognatha, since the condyle for the new point of articulation is located on...

Rhyniognatha

Rhyniognatha Hirsti

Derived than bristletails and silverfish, and probably more than Ephemeroptera. Regardless, Rhyniognatha's occurrence in the Early Devonian indicates that insects likely originated in the latest Silurian and were among the earliest of terrestrial faunas (Engel and Grimaldi, 2004a). Rhyniognatha also reflects the serious need for intensive exploration of insects from the Devonian and Early Carboniferous.

Earliestlnsects

Thysanura Representative

Particularly noteworthy is the mating behavior of Archaeognatha, which have three principal modes of sperm transfer. Species do not technically copulate, and sperm transfer is indirect even though fertilization is internalized. Males transfer to the female droplets of sperm or sper-matophores. Perhaps as a result, the genitalia of archaeog-naths are simple and males and females differ relatively little in the appendicular structures of the genital segments. Couples remain in close contact during mating and have distinctive courtship behaviors. In many machilids the males use a carrier-thread (Sturm, 1952, 1955). The male taps the female with his maxillary palpi and once she becomes receptive he secretes a thread of silk. The silken line is drawn out, to which the male attaches droplets of sperm. The female is prevented from moving forward by the male and while the female is facing away from the thread, the sperm droplets are transferred to her ovipositor and eventually into her...

Lepismatidae

This family includes the familiar silverfish and firebrats, which are common in both natural and domestic habitats. Outdoor species occur in caves, under stones and debris, and some species are associated with the nests of ants. The domestic species occupy a variety of habitats, and feed on starchy substances and plant material. Common silverfish, Lepisma saccharina Adults are about 12 mm long, not including the long terminal appendages. They are silver-gray, with a metallic sheen. This species is Silverfish consume both carbohydrates and protein material animal products are eaten readily and are important to the diet. Infood-storage areas they feed on flour, meal, and other similar products. They damage paper products, especially paper that has a glaze or sizing, which consists of various amounts of starch, dextrin, casein, and gum. Paper with high cellulose content is preferred. Cotton and silk fabrics are also attacked. Four-lined silverfish,Ctenolepismalineata(Fig. 17.1b) Adults...

Paleozoic Herbivory

Long before definitive evidence for winged insects, mites and other terrestrial arthropods probably exploited plants. Indeed, the damage observed in some Devonian plants is identical to that made by modern phytophagous mites. Early Devonian rhyniophytes and trimerophytes had herbivore damage, and they contained arthropod coprolites (presumably of myriapods and mites) that consisted of spores (e.g., Edwards, 1966 Banks, 1981 Trant and Gensel, 1985 Banks and Colthart, 1993) (e.g., Figure 2.21). Evidence of pierced plant tissues is also known from this time period (Kevan et al., 1975 Labandeira and Phillips, 1996b) perhaps the piercings were made by mites and springtails, the latter group of which is also known from this time period (e.g., Rhyniella). However, the frequency of herbivory was perhaps minor as terrestrial arthropod communities were dominated by predators, particularly among the arachnids. Basal insects (e.g., archaeognaths and zygentomans) were probably mostly detritivorous...

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