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Available natural enemies and their potential for control

There are many different species of scales and mealybugs. For some you can expect to achieve good biological control with the available natural enemies; for others the potential for successful biological control is lower.

Order Homoptera:Aphids, leafhoppers, planthoppers, scales, and mealybugs

Superfamily Coccoidea: Scale insects

Family Coccidae: Soft scales

Brown soft scale,

Coccus hesperidum

Hemispherical scale,

Saissetia coffeae

Black scale, Saissetia oleae

Nigra scale, Parasaissetia nigra

Family Diaspididae: Armored scales

Boisduval scale, Diaspis boisduvalii

Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum

California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii

Fern scale, Pinnaspis aspidistrae

Ivy or oleander scale,

Aspidiotus nerii

Greedy scale, Hemiberlesia rapax

Latania scale, Hemiberlesia lataniae

Pineapple scale, Diaspis bromeliae

Dictyospermum scale,

Chrysomphalus dictyospermi

Cactus scale, Diaspis echinocacti Family Pseudococcidae: Mealybugs Citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri

Longtailed mealybug,

Pseudococcus longispinus

The Superfamily Coccoidea is a large and diverse group, closely related to aphids and whiteflies.They are divided into three main groups: soft scales, armored scales, and mealybugs. They all feed in a similar manner, by sucking plant juices through their needle-like mouthparts.Many also excrete honeydew, which supports the growth of sooty molds that are cosmetically damaging. Heavy scale infestations can threaten plant health.

The adult males and females appear very different. Females and immatures are wingless and often legless and don't look like insects. Adult males look somewhat like tiny gnats but lack mouthparts and cannot feed.

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