Amino acid metabolisms complementary to Buchnera

Real-time quantitative RT-PCR further verified the conspicuous upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolisms (Figure 8 . 2A) . The bacteriocyte is the cell for harboring Buchnera, whose primary role is the synthesis of essential amino acids (Sasaki and Ishi-kawa, 1995; Febvay et al , 1995; Douglas, 1998) The genome analyses of Buchnera showed that these symbionts are specialized in production of essential amino acids: genes for synthesis of essential amino acids are retained, whereas genes for synthesis of nonessential amino acids are mostly lost (Shigenobu et al ., 2000; Tamas et al ., 2002; van Ham et al ., 2003; PĂ©rez-Brocal et al ., 2006) . In the bacteriocyte, therefore, it is expected that essential amino acids are supplied by Buchnera, whereas nonessential amino acids must be synthesized in excess by the host In agreement with the expectation, genes most highly expressed in the bacteriocyte include those for utilization of essential amino acids (those for cationic amino acid transporter 2, Henna [an enzyme with activities of phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase and tryptophan 5-monooxygenase, which are involved in catabolisms of L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan, respectively], and glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase [an enzyme that cata-

Local ID

Number of ESTs

Protein Homologue

R2C00037 R2C00204 R2C00172 R2C00040 R2C00101

R2C00059 R2C00253 R2C00050 R2C00038 R2C00023

R2C00089

R2C00113

R2C00020

R2C00100

R2C00132 R2C00244 R2C00124

R2C00011

45 34 33 27 26

24 23 22

Lysozyme i-1

Lysozyme i-1

ADP/ATP translocase

Glutamine synthetase 2 (CG1743; Gs2)

alpha-Tubulin at 84B (CG1913; alphaTub84B)

no hits

Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase

Ribosomal protein S9 (CG3395; RpS9)

Cationic amino acid transporter 2

Heat shock protein cognate 4 (CG4264; Hsc70-4)

Putative inorganic phosphate cotransporter (CG8098; Picot)

Ribosomal protein L15 (CG17420; RpL15)

Probable mitochondrial oxaloacetate transport protein

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (CG17725; Pepck)

Glycine cleavage system T protein

ATP synthase subunit c

Ribosomal protein SI 4a (CG1524; RpS14a)

no hits

Accession

Number E-value

Anopheles gambiae Anopheles gambiae Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Drosophila melanogaster

AAT51799 2.3E-35

AAT51799 1.1E-34

AAB31734 6.9E-103

NP_727525 2.2E-80

NP_476772 9.3E-116

NP_005908 1.8E-66

NP_524004 1.8E-95

NP_003037 1.9E-46

NP_524356 1.1E-92

Q9V7S5 4.5E-28

NP_652103 1.1E-88

NP_593169 1.7E-22

NP_523784 2.2E-73

NP_000472 1.4E-41

Q9U505 1.0E-46

NP_524884 2.5E-76

Local ID

Number of ESTs

Protein Homologue

R2C00108

R2C00022 R2C00106 R2C00013 R2C00042 R2C00130 R2C00041

R2C00055

R2C00131

R2C00014 R2C00097 R2C00114 R2C00115 R2C00187 R2C00195 R2C00061 R2C00063 R2C00067 R2C00092

R2C00094

20 20 18 18 18 17

Ribosomal protein S3A (CG2168; RpS3A)

Diacetyl/L-xylulose reductase 5'-Nucleotidase precursor no hits no hits

Calmodulin (CG8472; Cam)

Ribosomal protein L19 (CG2746; RpL19)

Inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (CG4370; Irk2)

Protein translation factor SUI1 homologue (CGI 7737)

CG13849-PA

no hits

Ribosomal protein S3 (CG6779; RpS3) Cell cycle regulator p21 protein, Wos2p no hits CG17221-PA

Ribosomal protein L8 (CG1263; RpL8)

CG3975-PA

no hits

Ribosomal protein L31 (CG1821; RpL31)

no hits

Xenopus tropicalis Lutzomyia longipalpis

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Accession

Number E-value

NP_524618 1.6E-83

NP_989100 1.6E-30

Q9XZ43 2.2E-47

NP_523710 6.2E-81

NP_476631 1.1E-90

NP_651149 1.5E-59

Q9VZS3 9.8E-54

NP_651040 1.5E-29

NP_476632 7.4E-85

NP_594586 2.6E-23

NP_608746 5.1E-19

NP_524726 1.2E-111

NP_609743 4.3E-12

NP_610503 1.9E-45

R2C00007 14

R2C00027 14

R2C00034 14

R2C00076 14

R2C00084 14

R2C00087 14

R2C00232 14

R2C00004 13

R2C00031 13

R2C00074 13

R2C00077 13

R2C00081 13

R2C00107 13

R2C00128 13

R2C00161 13

R2C00016 12

R2C00029 12

R2C00116 12

R2C00123 12

R2C00234 12

R2C00135 11

R2C00159 11

R2C00173 11

R2C00188 11

R2C00001 10

no hits no hits CG5567-PA no hits

Carbonyl reductase (NADPH) 1 no hits no hits

Ribosomal protein L7 (CG4897; RpL7)

Twinstar (CG4254; tsr)

Ribosomal protein L26 (CG6846;RpL26)

Receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (CG7111; Rackl)

no hits

Henna (CG7399, Hn) CG6767-PB

Vacuolar proton pump, 21-kD subunit no hits

CG13907-PA

CG10877-PA

no hits no hits

Lamina ancestor (CG10645; lama)

CG8983-PA

no hits

CG6180-PA

Vacuolar proton pump d subunit 1 (CG2934; VhaAC39)

Drosophila melanogaster

NP_649015

2.4E-43

Homo sapiens

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Homo sapiens

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

NP_001748 7.7E-39

NP_523531 7.4E-67

NP_477034 8.5E-67

NP_649070 1.7E-58

NP_477269 6.9E-92

NP_523963 7.0E-54

NP_729528 1.2E-105

NP_004038 2.8E-49

NP_612069 1.8E-55

NP_650894 2.4E-38

NP_729059 1.8E-20

NP_725084 1.0E-47

NP_609588 3.9E-64

NP_570080 5.6E-58

Local ID

Number of ESTs

Protein Homologue

R2C00036 R2C00039 R2C00068 R2C00193 R2C00006 R2C00009

R2C00028 R2C00066

R2C00088 R2C00099

10 10 10 10

CG2185-PA no hits

Rab40c, member RAS oncogene family

Rare lipoprotein A precursor

String of pearls (CG5920; sop)

Ribosomal protein L26 (CG6846; RpL26)

CG1101-PA

Glutathione S transferase D1 (CG10045; GstDl)

Hypothetical protein MG08000.4 CG12781-PA, PB (nahoda)

R2C00139

R2C00151 R2C00216 R2C00012

R2C00017 R2C00025

Ribosomal protein L36A (CG7424; RpL36A)

Ribosomal protein L9 (CG6141; RpL9) CG2254-PA

Dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (53.5 kD)

no hits

ATP synthase alpha chain, mitochondrial precursor (Bellwether) (CG3612; blw)

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (CG18315; Aprt)

Ribosomal protein SI 5A (CG2033; RpS15Aa)

Mas miiscidiis Yersinia pestis Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Magnaporthe grisea 70-15 Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Caenorhabditis elegans

Drosophila melanogaster

Accession

Number E-value

NP_649568 3.1E-61

NP_631893 7.5E-33

Q8ZDG6 7.3E-11

NP_476874 1.4E-98

NP_649070 3.1E-59

NP_651968 1.8E-44

NP_524326 1.9E-63

EAA57031 8.9E-15

NP_523815, 9.0E-13 NP_726264

NP_609179 1.2E-54

NP_477161 3.8E-80

NP_572436 1.0E-25

NP_506579 3.7E-40

NP_726243 3.8E-88

NP_476637 8.8E-31 NP_727690 3.2E-66

R2C00104

R2C00105 R2C00110 R2C00112 R2C00143 R2C00144 R2C00158

R2C00162

R2C00166 R2C00186

R2C00208

R2C00248 R2C00008 R2C00019 R2C00030

R2C00073 R2C00079

R2C00086 R2C00157

R2C00217 R2C00224

Ribosomal protein S26 (CG10305; RpS26)

CG7332-PA

CG8947-PA

Bax inhibitor-1

Hypothetical protein MGC4614 no hits

Ribosomal protein Lll (CG7726; RpLll)

Dihydropteridine reductase (CG4665; Dhpr)

CG32549-PD

Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (CG3724; Pgd)

Elongation factor lalphalOOE (CG1873; EflalphalOOE)

no hits

Heat shock protein 68 (CG5436; Hsp68)

Ribosomal protein P2 (CG4918; RpLP2)

Vacuolar proton pump B subunit (CG17369; Vha55)

no hits

Vacuolar proton pump d subunit 1 (CG2934; VhaAC39)

Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1

Senescence marker protein-30 (CG7390; smp-30)

Ferrochelatase (CG2098; ferrochelatase) Malate dehydrogenase (CG5889; Mdh)

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Mus musculus Homo sapiens

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster

NP_724109

NP_573338 NP_620470 NP_080945 NP 077270

NP_524474 NP_523764 NP 731726

NP_570080

NP_078974 NP_524353

NP_524613 CAB64263

7.5E-50

NP_477054 8.7E-86

NP_523990 3.1E-45

NP_573289 4.2E-59

NP_476860 4.0E-83

NP 524611 1.6E-101

1.3E-92

8.7E-63 8.6E-82 Continued.

"J

Co On

Local ID

Number of ESTs

Protein Homologue

R2C00241

R2C00021

Ornithine aminotransferase (CG8782; Oat)

R2C00043

R2C00046 R2C00047

R2C00060 R2C00064 R2C00080

R2C00082

R2C00085

26S protease regulatory subunit 8 (CG1489; Pros45)

Maroon-like (CG1692; mal)

Histone H3.3A (CG5825; His3.3A), H3.3B (CG8989; His3.3B)

CG12400-PA

no hits

Vacuolar proton pump F subunit (CG8210; Vhal4)

Thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (CG1633; Jafracl)

CG11594-PA, PC

R2C00090 R2C00091 R2C00103 R2C00111

R2C00119

Glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase CG15890-PA

3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase

Retinol dehydrogenase 12 (all-trans and 9-cis)

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4a (CG9075; eIF-4a)

Vacuolar protein sorting 18 Cut up (CG6998; ctp)

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster Mas musculus Homo sapiens

Drosophila melanogaster

Accession

Number E-value

Q9VW26 8.6E-51

NP_651954, 1.9E-113 NP_730773

018413 3.3E-85

NP_523423 4.3E-32

NP_523479, 2.4E-71 NP_511095

NP_608750 8.1E-18

NP_476969 1.2E-57

NP_477510 8.0E-74

NP_728918, 5.7E-55 NP_728919

NP_000150 3.2E-66

NP_572968 1.2E-25

NP_058662 1.8E-52

NP_689656 1.7E-44

NP_723137 1.9E-67

NP_065908 1.4E-54

NP_525075 7.8E-48

Ribosomal protein SI 5 (CG8332; RpS15)

LRP16 protein no hits

Abnormal wing discs (CG2210; awd)

Cystathionine gamma-lyase (43.1 kD) (2H346)

no hits

Elongation factor 1 beta (CG6341; Eflbeta)

CG15261-PA

Ribosomal protein S5 (CG7014; RpS5b)

Ribosomal protein L18 (CG8615; RpL18)

Actin 42A (CG12051; Act42A), 5C (CG4027-PB; Act5C)

no hits

Secretory carrier membrane protein 1 isoform 1, isoform 2

CG4090-PA

Vitellogenic carboxypeptidase precursor

Elongation factor 2b (CG2238; Ef2b) no hits

Ribosomal protein L17A (CG3661; RpL23)

no hits

Rhodnius prolixus MlP-like protein

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Homo sapiens

Drosophila melanogaster Caenorhabditis elegans

NP_610224 2.3E-75

NP_611136 1.5E-63

NP_054786 3.9E-44

NP_476761 1.2E-53

NP_495449 9.9E-40

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Homo sapiens

Drosophila melanogaster Aedes aegypti

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

NP_524808 1.2E-51

NP_609747 8.0E-27

NP_650407 4.2E-77

NP_648091 7.1E-72

NP_523625, 1.4E-74 NP_727048

NP_004857, 2.1E-15 NP_438173

NP_650611 8.6E-13

P42660 4.3E-26

NP_525105 1.6E-98

NP_523813 1.7E-70

Rhodnius prolixus

CAC13959

2.7E-11 Continued.

Local ID

Number of ESTs

Protein Homologue

R2C00127

R2C00156 R2C00167 R2C00169

Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1

no hits

CG7787-PA

CG40049-PA, PB

R2C00180 R2C00190 R2C00201

R2C00203 R2C00227

R2C00251 R2C00010 R2C00018

R2C00032 R2C00033 R2C00053 R2C00069 R2C00072

R2C00075

no hits

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va

Inositol(myo)-l(or 4)-monophosphatase 1

Splicing factor SRp54 (CG4602; Srp54)

Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase flavoprotein subunit (CG17246; Scs-fp)

CG11951-PA

CG7458-PA

Ribosomal protein S12 (CG11271; RpS12)

CG17323-PA

CG9165-PA

no hits no hits

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L20 (CG11258; mRpL20)

CG5569-PA

Source Organism

Accession Number

E-value

Homo sapiens

NP 002755

2.0E-97

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

NP_609209

EAA46075, EAA46076

Rhyzopertha dominica Homo sapiens

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

AAL17607 NP_005527

NP_477347 NP 477210

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

NP_651688 NP_649374 NP_729865

NP_609910 NP 612103

NP 524051

NP 611840

8.1E-41

2.9E-18

R2C00133 R2C00154

R2C00164 R2C00168 R2C00170 R2C00175 R2C00189

R2C00197

R2C00198 R2C00200 R2C00209 R2C00213 R2C00214 R2C00215 R2C00218

R2C00228 R2C00246 R2C00035 R2C00048 R2C00054 R2C00056 R2C00065

Phosphoserine aminotransferase isoform 1

Carbonyl reductase (NADPH) 1

Ribosomal protein L46 (CG3997-PA; RpL39)

no hits

Cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide IV no hits no hits

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (20.2 kD) (1G247)

Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; oxoglutarate carrier), member 11

Choline phosphotransferase 1

CG10711-PA

no hits

CG5941-PA

Conserved hypothetical protein no hits

Vacuolar proton pump G subunit (CG6213; Vhal3)

CG10171-PA

CG8093-PA

Bax inhibitor-1

no hits

Sanpodo (CG1539; spdo) no hits

ENSANGP00000015016

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila simulans

Caenorhabditis elegans Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Wolbachia pipientis wMel

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Mus musculus

Drosophila melanogaster sr

AAP88302 1.6E-32 s

NP_003553 1.4E-41

NP 648660 1.2E-52

NP_572288 5.5E-67 NP 966741 7.1E-22

NP_477437 1.1E-40

NP_648639 4.9E-40

NP_611020 2.5E-20

NP_080945 1.2E-24

NP_733385 4.1E-77

Anopheles gambiae

XP_308743

2.7E-14 Continued.

Local ID

Number of ESTs

Protein Homologue

R2C00070

R2C00098

R2C00129 R2C00140 R2C00148 R2C00149 R2C00153 R2C00165

R2C00176 R2C00177 R2C00178 R2C00179 R2C00181 R2C00182 R2C00183 R2C00184 R2C00191 R2C00205

R2C00223 R2C00225 R2C00226 R2C00230

Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein at 69D (CG10753-PA; snRNP69D)

Dihydrofolate reductase (CG14887; Dhfr)

no hits

Proteasome beta 4 subunit no hits

Antennal protein 10 (CG6642; alO) no hits

Ferritin 1 heavy chain homologue (CG2216; FerlHCH)

no hits no hits unknown no hits no hits no hits

Acetyl-CoA transporter (2J539)

no hits

CG7207-PA

Ribosomal protein S19 (CG4464; RpS19a)

CG8680-PA

no hits no hits

6-Pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase

Drosophila melanogaster

Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Environmental sequence

Caenorhabditis elegans

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Accession

Number E-value

NP_524774 9.4E-48

NP_732147 9.7E-38

NP_002787 1.9E-38

NP_524121 6.0E-14

NP_524873 1.7E-37

EAE11505 1.8E-51

NP_495969 2.4E-40

NP_648199 6.1E-38

NP_523376 2.4E-47

NP_608909 3.7E-35

NP_035350 1.8E-47

R2C00239 R2C00015 R2C00051

R2C00052 R2C00057

R2C00062

R2C00109 R2C00117 R2C00120

R2C00134

R2C00136 R2C00138 R2C00145 R2C00146 R2C00150 R2C00152 R2C00155 R2C00160 R2C00163

3 Similar to putative growth hormone like protein-1

3 Fatty acid desaturase

2 no hits

2 Malate dehydrogenase (CG5889; Mdh)

2 CG10823-PA, PB

2 CG4692-PA, PB

2 no hits

2 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 2

2 CG32230-PA, PB

2 unknown

2 Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme

2 no hits

2 CG2091-PA

2 Cathepsin L

2 Heat shock protein 68 (CG5436; Hsp68)

2 Cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide VIb

2 Enoyl coenzyme A hydratase domain containing 3

Mus muscidus Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Mus muscidus Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Caenorhabditis elegans Environmental sequence Homo sapiens

Drosophila melanogaster Aphis gossypii Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila simulans Homo sapiens

NP_732614

NP_726463, 5.6E-43 NP 611940

CAB52474 6.3E-53 ^

NP_724887, NP_724889

CAB64263 1.2E-48 3

NP_848739 1.3E-28

NP_730778 |

NP_725672, 2.3E-18 NP_725673, w NP_725674

NP_493624 4.5E-60

EAE11505 6.4E-22

AAA82155 8.3E-17

NP_649582 3.3E-14

CAD33266 7.6E-82

NP_524474 2.3E-66

AAP88308 6.7E-22

NP_078969 1.7E-17

Local ID

Number of ESTs

Protein Homologue

R2C00174

R2C00185 R2C00194 R2C00202 R2C00206

Ribosomal protein L37-A (CG9091-PA; RpL37a)

Motile sperm domain containing 1 CG5010-PA

Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase CG3321-PA, PB

R2C00210

R2C00212 R2C00219 R2C00220 R2C00221 R2C00222 R2C00235

R2C00236

R2C00237 R2C00238

R2C00240

Senescence marker protein-30 (CG7390; smp-30)

Actin 5C (CG4027; Act5C)

no hits

CG11015-PA

no hits no hits

acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (43.9 kD) (1C94)

Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C, integral membrane protein

CG5033-PA

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (CG18315; Aprt)

Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (CG12055; Gapdhl)

Mitochondrial import inner membrane translocase subunit Tim9A (CG1660; Tim9a)

Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Caenorhabditis elegans

Mas miiscidiis

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Accession

Number E-value

NP_573005 3.9E-44

NP_062456 2.0E-28

NP_573196 1.0E-35

NP_060599 4.9E-26

NP_650356, 4.1E-16 NP_731903

NP_524353 9.2E-21

NP_727048 3.5E-127

NP_609046 2.3E-34

NP_490872 4.2E-27

NP_079597 4.8E-18

NP_611270 2.3E-51

NP_476637 9.1E-31

NP_525108 4.6E-70

NP_572881 1.9E-16

R2C00243 R2C00247 R2C00249 R2C00250 R2C00252

R2C00254 BCA001015 BCA001021 BCA001028

BCA002027 BCA002044 BCA002060 BCA003014

BCA005032

BCA005089

BCA006012 BCA007043 BCA008009

BCA008015 BCA008045 BCA008048

2 CG1236-PA

2 no hits

2 no hits

2 CG4090-PA

2 CG1709-PB, PD

2 CG13377-PA

1 no hits

1 no hits

1 CG12877-PA, PB, CG5516-PA

Gelsolin (CG1106; Gel) CG4686-PA no hits

Ribosomal protein S13 (CG13389; RpS13)

ATPase coupling factor 6 (CG4412; ATPsyn-Cf6)

Phosphoglucose isomerase (CG8251;

Pgi)

CG12107-PA

Ribosomal protein S9 (CG3395; RpS9)

Ribosomal protein L26 (CG6846;RpL26)

CG3309-PA

no hits

CG3603-PA

Drosophila melanogaster

NP_649579

6.8E-37

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

NP_650611 1.7E-14

NP_733274, 3.3E-88 NP_733275

NP_569835 8.6E-11

NP_651584, 1.6E-12 NP_733234, NP_650515

NP_524865 1.4E-17

NP_650837 1.0E-12

NP_476938 1.2E-67

NP_477194 2.5E-12

NP_523663 2.6E-19

NP_610314 1.5E-13

NP_524004 5.7E-81

NP_649070 2.7E-51

NP_572216 6.4E-31

NP_570046 1.1E-38

Continued.

Local ID

Number of ESTs

Protein Homologue

BCA009041

CG12393-PA, PB

BCA009044 BCA009073 BCA010006 BCA010027

BCA011030 BCA011048 BCA011076

BCA012002 BCA012018 BCA012033 BCA012039 BCA013007

BCA013035 BCA013048 BCA013050 BCA013064 BCA013079

BCA014016 BCA014030 BCA016027

no hits

CG7580-PA

CG9140-PA

SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine)

no hits no hits

NADHubiquinone reductase 75kD subunit precursor (CG2286; ND75)

no hits

CG4630-PA

CG15890-PA

CG6084-PA

Fructose-l,6-bisphosphatase (CG31692-PA; fbp)

no hits no hits no hits

Cytochrome oxidase subunit I

ABC transporter expressed in trachea (CG2969; Atet)

CG6198-PA

Cationic amino acid transporter 1 Beadex (CG6500; Bx)

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Artemia franciscana

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Diuraphis noxia Drosophila melanogaster

Accession

Number E-value

NP_608984, 1.3E-40 NP_723149

NP_648985 2.0E-19

NP_608987 3.6E-84

BAB20042 6.5E-29

NP_511083 2.6E-77

NP_610847 8.2E-16

NP_572968 9.1E-18

NP_648484 1.4E-47

NP_610001 5.5E-62

AA023131 3.8E-88

NP_523471 4.8E-28

NP_651226 2.8E-56

NP_003036 8.8E-35

NP_728184 1.1E-63

BCA016036

BCA016065 BCA016066 BCA016071 BCA018012 BCA019013 BCA021017

BCA021025

BCA021029 BCA021032 BCA021042 BCA021054

BCA022012 BCA022015 BCA022035 BCA022042 BCA022050 BCA023018 BCA023022

BCA023025 BCA023053

Superoxide dismutase 2 (Mn) (CG8905; Sod2)

Ras-like GTP-binding protein Rhol (CG8416; Rhol)

no hits no hits

CG31301-PA

no hits no hits

CG40049-PA, PB

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor; MIF

no hits no hits no hits

Guanosine monophosphate reductase 2

CG2813-PA

Ribosomal protein L9 (CG6141; RpL9)

Abnormal wing discs (CG2210; awd)

CG9166-PA

unknown no hits

CG6265-PA, PB no hits

Thioredoxin reductase-1 (CG2151; Trxr-1)

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Amblyomma americanum

Homo sapiens

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster Environmental sequence

NP_476925 2.0E-29 NP_477098 6.7E-66

NP_650449 8.5E-13

EAA46075, 6.5E-27 EAA46076

AAG28339 7.6E-24

NP_057660 4.0E-50

NP_608536 1.3E-34

NP_477161 5.0E-18

NP_476761 6.0E-55

NP_612105 3.8E-17

EAD41397 7.7E-18

NP_651527, 7.9E-17 NP_733186

NP_511082 1.0E-47

Local ID

Number of ESTs

Protein Homologue

BCA024021 BCA024038 BCA024053 BCA025002

BCA026021

Phosphoglucose isomerase no hits

CG33138-PA

Cytochrome c proximal (CG17903; Cyt-c-p)

BCA027002

BCA027014 BCA027054 BCA028031 BCA029003 BCA029023 BCA030014 BCA030024 BCA030085 BCA031009 BCA032027 BCA032058

BCA032072 BCA035001

Proteasome 25kD subunit (CG5266; Pros25)

no hits no hits no hits no hits no hits no hits no hits no hits

Phosphatase and tensin homologue no hits

Soluble NSF attachment protein (CG6625; Snap)

no hits

Ribosomal protein L38

Accession

Number E-value

Gn/llus veletis

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

AAG15513 3.6E-16

NP_788342 4.2E-17

NP_477176 5.9E-45

NP_729535, 2.2E-22 NP_729536, NP_648349, NP_729534

NP_524328 2.8E-83

Homo sapiens Drosophila melanogaster

Spodoptera frugiperda

NP_000305 2.8E-43 NP_524180 5.1E-36

AAK92173 3.2E-30

BCA035046 BCA035050 BCA036005 BCA036012 BCA037073 BCA037074 BCA038003 BCA038026 BCA038038 BCA038047 BCA038054 BCA038058

no hits CG3625-PB

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va Acetyl-CoA transporter (2J539) CG6767-PA no hits

Ribosomal protein S8 no hits no hits no hits no hits

CG7888-PA, PB, PC

BCA038063 1 beta-Tubulin at 60D (CG3401;

betaTub60D)

BCA038067 1 CG3132-PA

Drosophila melanogaster Rhyzopertha dominica Caenorhabditis elegans Drosophila melanogaster

Apis mellifera

Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila melanogaster

NP_608514 AAL17607 NP_495969 NP 648345

AAC28863

2.7E-46

NP_729651, NP_648425, NP_729652

NP 523842

7.7E-41

1.2E-90

NP 650142 1.1E-44

"o

I I whole body I bacteriocyte

GS2 CAT2 GCVT Henna GCDH PSAT

LSZ HSC70

ANT2 PC

Figure 8.2 Quantitative RT-PCR of aphid genes expressed in the bacteriocyte. (A) Genes related to amino acid metabolism: GS2, glutamine synthetase 2; CAT2, cationic amino acid transporter 2; GCVT, glycine cleavage system T protein; Henna; GCDH, glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase; PSAT, phosphoserine aminotransferase. (B) Genes related to defense response: LSZ, lysozyme; HSC70, heat shock protein cognate 4 . Although the gene for HSC70 was among the most highly expressed transcripts in the category "defense response" (Table 8 . 3; R2C00023), quantitative RT-PCR revealed no significant upregulation of the gene in the bacteriocyte . (C) Genes related to transport: ANT2, ADP/ATP translocase; PC, inorganic phosphate cotransporter; OT, mitochondrial oxaloacetate transport protein; AS, ATP synthase subunit c; Rab; GC, mitochondrial glutamate carrier. Open columns, expression levels in the whole body; filled columns, expression levels in the bacteriocyte; bars, standard errors (n = 10) . The expression levels are shown in terms of mRNA copies of target genes per copy of mRNA for ribosomal protein L7 Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test; *, p < 0 .05; **, p < 0 .01) . (Modified from Nakabachi, A ., Shigenobu, S., Sakazume, N ., Shiraki, T., Hayashizaki, Y., Carninci, P., Ishikawa, H ., Kudo, T., and Fukatsu, T. [2005] . Proc . Natl . Acad. Sci . U. S .A . 102: 5477-5482.)

lyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA, which is involved in L-tryptophan metabolism and degradative pathways of L-lysine and L-hydroxylysine]) and genes for synthesis of nonessential amino acids (those for glutamine synthetase 2 and phosphoserine aminotransferase [an enzyme that is involved in serine biosynthesis]). These results revealed an important aspect of the molecular basis of interdependency between the host and Buchnera .

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