B

(d) ^

(e)

A

A

A

Figure 13.3 Observation of sex chromatin bodies in interphase nuclei of E. hecabe. (a)-(c): Nuclei of Malpighian tubule cells from a female singly infected with wHecCI (a), a female doubly infected with wHecCI and wHecFem (b), and a male singly infected with wHecCI (c) . (d) and (e): Nuclei of bursa copulatrix cells from a female singly infected with wHecCI (d) and a female doubly infected with wHecCI and wHecFem (e) . Note that the Malpighian tubule cells contain highly polyploid branched nuclei . Arrows indicate sex chromatin bodies . Bar, 20 mm . (Adapted from Narita, S ., Kageyama, D ., Nomura, M ., and Fukatsu, T. (2007a) . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 4332-4341. With permission .)

constantly low and fluctuating irrespective of the adult ages and tissues (Narita et al ., 2007b) . The high and stable densities of wHecCI may be considered as an adaptive strategy to maximize the efficiency of its vertical transmission, while the imperfect vertical transmission of wHecFem may be attributable to its low and fluctuating densities The different infection densities between wHecCI and wHecFem may be relevant to their reproductive

100 80 60 40 20

100 80 60 40 20

Offspring of double-infected mothers

Offspring of single-infected mothers

Offspring of double-infected mothers

Offspring of single-infected mothers

Figure 13.4 Percentages of offspring infected with each Wolbachia strain in the ovary. Left: Offspring of mothers doubly infected with wHecCI and wHecFem . Right: Offspring of mothers singly infected with wHecCI . Gray: Individuals positive for both wHecCI and wHecFem . White: Individuals positive for wHecCI alone . The sample size is given on each bar.

wHecCI t r wHecCI

I jj i g wHecFem

Offspring Offspring Offspring of single- of double- of double-

Infected Infected Infected mothers mothers mothers

Density of wHecFem

Figure 13.5 Densities of Wolbachia strains wHecCI and wHecFem in the ovaries of adult females examined at day 4 after adult emergence . (a): Densities of wHecCI in the offspring of mothers singly infected with wHecCI (left) . Densities of wHecCI (middle) and wHecFem (right) in the offspring of mothers doubly infected with wHecCI and wHecFem . Each circle represents an individual . (b): Relationship between wHecCI and wHecFem densities within single individuals . Each dot represents an individual phenotypes (cytoplasmic incompatibility vs . feminization) or their different levels of adaptation to the host insect (widespread wHecCI vs . infrequent wHecFem).

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