Conclusion

Genes involved in host immunity are often also involved in host development (pleiotropy) Hence, any symbiont that is manipulating its host's immune system could potentially also influence its host's developmental program. The intense interactions of the symbiont with the host's immune system, combined with pleiotropy of genes involved in immunity and development, could make host development especially prone to symbiont manipulation This effect is not limited to PCD, but because of its importance for both host immunity and development, PCD might play a crucial role in the evolution of host-symbiont interactions . More generally, pleiotropy between functions could be a major determinant of symbiosis evolution, which can result in several possible evolutionary outcomes

However, direct and clear-cut evidence that the mechanisms allowing symbionts to evade the immune system are being used for the modification of the host developmental program is still lacking The main reason for this is that although numerous data have been collected on the role of PCD and its manipulation by intracellular pathogens in vertebrates, virtually nothing is known on this topic in invertebrates, with the exception of viruses Insect models could provide unique systems to address questions that remain understudied, especially considering the diversity of interactions that insects have established with intracellular symbionts and the availability of insect model systems for which genetic tools are available This research avenue is of a wider importance as well, given the numerous cases where intracellular human and veterinary pathogens are vectored by invertebrate hosts A. tabida provides a system to study the role of PCD in the interplay between host and endosymbionts, but elucidating the exact role of PCD would benefit from the development of more model systems for which genetic and developmental tools are readily available. More generally, establishing bridges between host-pathogen and host-symbiont interactions and between immunity and development may help to cross-fertilize these fields, to orientate investigations and clarify the evolutionary origin of the molecular dialogue between a host and its associated microorganisms

How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Audio Book


Post a comment