Conclusions

Although there has been much recent progress toward the goal of developing transgenic Anopheles mosquitoes that are refractory to transmission of malaria parasites, there has been little corresponding research toward the development of drive mechanisms Without a drive mechanism, most transgenic control strategies are doomed to failure . Wolbachia has shown considerable promise in both manipulated and natural systems as a viable method for driving genes into populations for disease control . In vitro data suggests that the Anopheles genetic background is competent to harbor some Wolbachia strains and there is thus no a priori reason to suspect that the mosquitoes are refractory to infection in vivo. Wolbachia transfer technologies have been developed for a variety of vector and nonvector insects, and we have every reason to believe that similar techniques can be adapted to Anopheles mosquitoes The successful transfer of Wolbachia into Anopheles mosquitoes will lay the foundation for the successful deployment of genetically modified Anopheles mosquitoes for malaria control

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