Contents

Introduction 96

Gut bacterial symbiosis in stinkbugs 97

Stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae 97

Scientific history: discovery of symbiont capsule in plataspid stinkbug 97

Personal history: why has plataspid symbiosis fascinated us? 98

Symbiotic system of the Japanese common plataspid stinkbug Megacopta punctatissima 99

Posterior midgut of plataspid stinkbug as specialized symbiotic organ 103

Laboratory rearing of plataspid stinkbugs 104

Prevalence of maternal capsule production in plataspid stinkbugs 104

Phylogenetic placement of plataspid symbionts 105

Production of symbiont-free insects by removal of capsules 105

Effects of symbiont infection on host fitness and phenotype 106

Essential role of gut symbionts for host stinkbug 107

Host-symbiont cospeciation despite the midgut extracellular symbiosis 108

General patterns in the genome evolution of endocellular symbiotic bacteria of insects 109

Reductive genome evolution in the midgut extracellular symbiotic bacteria 110

Proposal of "Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata" 110

Plataspid-Ishikawaella symbiosis: a novel model system for insect symbiosis studies 110

Symbiont acquisition alters behavior of nymphal stinkbugs 112

Effects of parasitic symbiont on host behavior and biology 112

Effects of mutualistic symbiont on host behavior and biology 112

Resting/aggregating behavior of stinkbug nymphs 112

Nymphal resting behavior in M. punctatissima 113

Experimental depletion of symbiont resulted in nymphal wandering behavior 113

Lower symbiont supply resulted in more wandering nymphs 113

Wandering nymphs were certainly symbiont-depleted 113

Insights into behavioral biology of symbiont-associated insects 114

Pest status of host stinkbugs is determined by their gut symbiotic bacteria 115

Closely related pest and nonpest plataspid stinkbugs 115

What differs between pest and nonpest stinkbugs? 115

Experimental symbiont exchange between pest and nonpest stinkbugs 115

Pest became nonpest and nonpest became pest after symbiont exchange 117

Pest status of stinkbug determined by symbiont genotype 117

Insights into pest evolution, control, and management 118

Conclusion and perspective 118

Acknowledgments 119

References 119

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