Scientific history discovery of symbiont capsule in plataspid stinkbug

Schneider (1940) first described the astonishingly unique formation of the symbiotic system in a European plataspid species Coptosoma scutellatum. Adult females of the stinkbug lay eggs in two rows on leaves or buds of the host plant (Figure 5 . 2A) . On the underside of

Figure 5.1 Japanese plataspid stinkbugs . (A) Megacopta punctatissima. (B) M. cribraria. (C) Coptosoma parvipictum. (D) C. sphaerula. (E) Brachyplatys subaeneus. (F) B. vahlii. Bars show 5 mm .

the egg mass, small particles, dark brown in color, are present (Figures 5 . 2A and B) . The particles, called "symbiont capsules," encase plenty of bacterial cells inside . Posterior midgut of the stinkbug is highly developed and specialized, with a number of crypts full of enormous amount of bacterial cells, being transformed into a voluminous symbiotic organ (Figure 5 . 2C) . Namely, the symbiont capsule is a mother-made bacteria-containing "lunch box." Newborn nymphs immediately suck the capsule content upon hatching, thereby orally acquiring the symbiont (Figure 5 . 2B) . Later, Müller (1956) conducted some experimental studies, which demonstrated that experimental disruption of symbiont acquisition results in retarded growth and mortality of symbiont-deficient nymphs of C. scutellatum. Since the early pioneering works, however, nobody has worked on the intriguing subject at all

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