Selfnonself recognition

Two cells from the same organism or cells from identical twins form shared flat membranes when they interact, forming immunological (Davis and Dustin, 2004) or other synapses (Takeichi and Abe, 2005) that turn into unique-shaped cells in tissues (Hayashi and Carthew, 2004) . As much as this constitutes the most visible manifestation of self-recognition that is common to all multicellular organisms (Burnet, 1971), we nevertheless have problems in explaining the process using instructive models of cell recognition (Figure 2 1) This model, which explains most cell-cell interactions, implies that driving forces shaping the membrane are exclusively cytoplasmic in origin and therefore need extracellular instructions to respond to outside influences In the context of instructive models our perception is that cell-cell interactions in multicellular organisms are cooperative in the sense that two cells first recognize each other as "self" and then form a mutually shared flat membrane by aligning adhesive receptors (Takeichi and Abe, 2005) and cortical tension (Lecuit and Lenne, 2007) through regulation of cytoplasmic driving forces . Although

Cellular uptake in the instructive model elicitor receptor

endocytosis cytoplasmic machinery si9nal "VT

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