Cambridge University Press

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2ru, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title www.cambridge.org 9780521812535 W. H Robinson 2005 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without...

Bibliography

Jepson (eds.) Integrated Pest Management. New York Academic Press, 1988. Carson, R. L. Silent Spring. Boston, MA Houghton Mifflin, 1962. Gorham, R. J. The significance for human health ofinsects in food. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 24 (1979), 209-24. Kangas, E. The impact of human culture on insects, and especially on insect pests. Fennia, 85 (1961), 100-5. Kogan, M. (ed.) EcologicalTheory and IntegratedPestManagementPractice. New York John Wiley, 1986. Krieger,...

Introduction

Cockroaches are primarily tropical and subtropical insects, but they occur in nearly all of the climatic regions of the world. Most of the approximately 4000 described species live in small populations in forest habitats, some little-known species are semi-aquatic, some are cave-dwelling, and a small number of species are associated with the nests of other insects. They are predominantly nocturnal and vegetarian, but many adjust their habits and food preferences to fit environmental conditions...

Perlidae

Adults are 8-44 mm long, yellowish brown, and there are branched gill remnants at the posterior of the pro- and mesothoracic segments. Adults appear from April through September they do not feed. Larvae are usually patterned in brown and yellow, somewhat flattened, and live in the bottom silt and mud as predators. Common stonefly, Acroneuria evoluta (Fig. 15.1a, b) Adults are about 28 mm long to the wing tips the body is uniformly brown, with dark brown marks on the head. Nymphs are 17-23 mm...

Syrphidae

These flies are 6-12 mm long and brightly colored yellow and black. They are often seen hovering around flowers. Others are 12-20 mm long, brown to dark brown flies associated with decaying organic matter. Many species resemble bees and wasps some look like honey bees and some bumble bees. The drone fly, Eristalis tenax, resembles a honey bee in appearance and sound. Larvae of this species are found in decaying organic matter. Aristotle theorized that honey bees could be generated from the dead...

Cockroach wasps

Ampulex wasps are 8-15 mm long with a shiny black to brownish black body. Their wings are clear and the antennae long. These wasps are widely distributed around the world. They are characterized bynotmakingnests to rear theiryoung, butdrag their prey to a nearby cavity or hole in the ground. There are many species in the genus and cockroaches are the only known prey. Ampulexamoena This species occurs in Asia. Itpreys on small nymphs of Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae. The female...

Collembola Dermaptera

Springtails are 0.75-6 mm long, wingless and soft-bodied insects. The abdominal segments are fused and there are not more than six segments visible. Antennae have 4-8 segments. The common name is derived from a forked structure, the fur-cula, which helps to propel them through the air. The fur-cula is on the fourth ventral abdominal segment, and when at rest it is folded under the abdomen. Jumps are made by forcefully extending the furcula downward and backward to strike the substrate, which...

Amphipoda

These crustaceans resemble shrimp and are variously called scuds, beach-fleas, or sand-fleas. Their body is elongate and laterally compressed. The thoracic segments are large and dominate the body seven of these segments have leglike appendages. The abdominal segments are small and compressed. This group contains marine species, such as the sand-flea or beach-flea, Orchestia agilis, and a sea scud, Gammarus annulatus. The freshwater forms include Dikerogammarus spp. and Hyalella spp....

Coelopidae

Seaweed flies are 5-12 mm long and dark brown to black. The dorsum of the thorax is flattened, and the body and legs have numerous bristles. They occur along the seashore where seaweed (kelp) has washed on shore in large amounts. The larvae breed in the seaweed, and the adults often swarm over it in large numbers, and they are sometimes carried inland where they can be nuisance pests around houses. Shore birds may be attracted to and feed on the flies gathering at the seaweed. Other flies are...

Info

D. adulterina 281 D. arctica 278, 279 D. arenaria 279 D. maculata 273, 279 D. media 281 D. norvegicoides 279, 281 D. norwegica 281 D. saxonica 281 D. sylvestris 281 Dolichurus 39 Doru D. aculeatum 144 D. lineare 144 Doryctes leucogaster 82 Dorylus helvolus 261 Dorymyrmex 246 D. insanus 246 D. pyramicus 246 Dorypteryx D. domestica 371 D. pallida 371 Draculacephala mollipes 216 Drosophila 168, 419 D. immigrans 168,169 D. ambigua 169 D. busckii 169 D. funebris 168,169 D. hydei 169 D. littoralis...

Peridomestic and domestic habitats

Within and around buildings, houses, and other urban structures are habitats that support individuals or populations of plants and animals. Peridomestic habitats are outside, around the perimeter of structures. They include the external surfaces of buildings, the ornamental trees, shrubs, and turfgrass that characterize the urban and suburban landscape. Domestic habitats are indoors, and include the plant- and animal-based materials in this controlled, anthropogenic environment. Harborage...

Pompilidae

Spider wasps have a wing length of 2-50 mm and their body is black, bluish black to reddish brown. The abdomen is black with yellow markings, or yellow with black and or red markings. The legs are long. The females have a potent sting but they are not aggressive. These wasps are rapid flyers and fastrunners, and these behaviors may be threatening to people. Pompilids search for free-living spiders and, after locating, stinging, and paralyzing one, the female spider wasp carries it to a secluded...

Elateridae

Adults are 12-20 mm long, brown to dark brown, and usually with serrate antennae. Click beetles are named because of the spine on theprothorax thatsnaps into a groove on the mesoster-num with an audible click. This mechanism enables an adult lying on its back to throw itself into the air and land on its feet. Most adults are strong flyers and can be found on flowers during the day, and many fly to lights at night. Larvae are known as wireworms because of their long, narrow, andwell-sclerotized,...

Formicidae

Ants are 1-20 mm long and the body color ranges from yellowish brown to black. They are characterized by a large head and elbowed antennae. The antennae of females and workers are 10-12-segmented, and 10-13-segmented in males. Abdominal segment 2, or segments 2 and 3, are separated as distinct nodes. Colonies are comprised of individuals in three castes workers, which are apterous neuter females queens, which are reproductive females thatmay be winged, dealate, or apterous and males, which are...

Platypodidae

Platypodids are known as pinhole borers or flatfooted ambrosia beetles. Adults are 2-8 mm long and brown to brownish black. The body is cylindrical and with the head slightly wider than the pronotum. Tarsi are very slender, with the first segment longer than the remaining segments combined in scolytids the first tarsal segment is shorter than the remaining segments. Platypodids lack a spine or projection at the apex of the front tibia that is present in the scolytids. Tunnels made in wood by...

Thief ant grease ant piss ant solenopsis molesta Fig 98c

Workers are 1.3-1.8 mm long and the body is smooth and shiny. The color ranges from yellowish brown to dark brown. The eyes are small, with 4-6 ommatidia or fewer. The scape extends more than half the distance between the eye and the posterior border of the head. The antennal club is large and elongate it is approximately 1.3 times the combined lengths of the remainder of the segments after the scape. The mandible usually has four teeth. The body setae are moderately abundant and well...

Hipposboscidae

These unusual flies are blood-sucking ectoparasites on birds and mammals. Both males and females suck blood, but their bite is not painful. They are called louse flies when they occur on birds, and keds when they occur on mammals. They are 4-7 mm long, somewhat flattened, and winged or wingless. Most of the winged forms are dark brown the legs are widely separated, and the abdomen of the female is membranous. The palpi are elongate and slender, and form a sheath around the proboscis. All...

Diptera Ephemeroptera

Flies are one of the most recognized pests in the urban environment. The fore wings of dipterans are developed, but the hind wings are reduced to small knobbed structures called halteres. Adult flies are active during the day, sometimes at dawn or dusk, and are usually attracted to the odors from sites suitable for larval feeding and development. The larvae are known as maggots, and although this is the primary feeding stage, it is often in a different habitat from the one visited by adults....

Scarabaeidae

Scarabs are generally robust as adults, and range in size from about 0.5 cm to more than 8 cm. They are distinguished by segmented antennae, which terminate in a large club of 3-7 segments that can be expanded like a fan or closed. Adults feed on living or decaying plants, and some species feed on dung. The C-shaped grubs usually have a sclerotized head and large mandibles. Grubs feed on plant material in soil, decaying vegetation, decaying logs, and dung. During the Egyptian Middle Kingdom...

Cryptocercidae

These are moderate-sized, wingless cockroaches with 1-3 spines ventrally at the tip of the front femur, and withoutocelli. None of the species in this family occurs indoors. There are four described species, two from China and Manchuria, and two from the USA. There is limited information on the biology and habits of these cockroaches. Except for a brief dispersal stage as late-stage nymphs or young adults, these cockroaches live their entire life cycle within galleries chewed in rotted logs....

Miridae

This is the largest family of bugs and it contains species that feed primarily on plants and are destructive pests. Adults are elongate oval, 4-14 mm long, and with two distinct cells on the wing membrane. They are active flyers. Some species are predaceous on other insects and have the ability to deliver a painful bite to humans. In Japan, Phytocoris ohataen-sis and Lygocoris idoneus often occur around the perimeter of buildings. Mirids will pierce human skin when it is either moist with...

Attractants

The sensory mechanism involved in searching for food, oviposition sites, and mates is stimulated and controlled by chemicals. Those chemicals that deliver behavioral messages or induce a response are termed semiochemicals, and pheromones are the semiochemicals used for intraspecific communication between individuals of the same species. There are several different types ofpheromones, such as alarm, dispersal, and aggregation pheromone, but it is the group ofsex pheromones that is most widely...

Urban habitats

The structural complexity of cities includes features that provide harborage and food for arthropods and other animals. Parks, recreation areas, and other greenspace have natural habitats for vertebrates and invertebrates the system of storm water and sewer pipes provides artificial habitats for other animals. Garbage collection points and landfills are consistent features of urban environments around the world, and these sites provide habitats for arthropods, rodents, and pest birds. Livestock...

Woodinfesting

Wood boring weevils in buildings. Timberlab. News, 4 (1970), 6-7. Becker, G. Beitrage zur Kenntis Hausbockkafers. Z. Hyg. Zool., 34 Ein Kam bekannter Kaferim Bauholz breitet sich aus. Holz-Zentralbl., 77 (1951), 1895-6. Predators and parasites of wood-destroying insects in buildings. Verhandl. Deutsch. Ges. Angew. Entomol. (1954), 76-85. Ecology and physiology of wood-destroying Coleoptera in structural timber. Mater. Org., 12 (1977), 141-60. Bois, P. J. Wood moisture content in...

Anobiidae

Anobiid adults are 1.5-8 mm long, reddish brown to black, and covered with fine setae or pubescence. The head is usually hidden by the pronotum, and the 11-segmented antennae are inserted on the sides of the head, in front of the eyes. Full-grown larvae are about 8 mm long, grub-shaped, and yellowish white. Larval thoracic segments are enlarged dorsally, and the segments have a dorsal patch of large setae. Adults of many species are nocturnal and are rarely seen during the day. Feeding habits...

Lygaeidae

Adults range in size from 2 to 18 mm, and are characterized by the veins on the wing. They have four-segmented antennae, and have four or five distinctveins on the membranous portion of the wing. Many species are marked with spots or bands of red, white, or black. These bugs feed primarily on seeds and plant sap, but a small number are predaceous. Various species oflygaeids are known to bite humans. Birch catkin bug, Kleidocerys resedae geminatus Adults are 5-11 mm long and brownish red nymphs...

Geophilomorpha

These centipedes are subterranean, as their name implies. They are worm-like centipedes with slender bodies composed of 35-181 segments, and they have short legs. They live in loose soil in natural areas, but occur in suburban landscaping and gardens. They feed on soft-bodied insects and earthworms their mouthparts are small and unable to bite humans. In a number of geophilomorphs the secretions of sternal glands are luminescent. In Europe, the luminescent species include Geophilus simplex, G....

Tineidae

Most tineids are small moths the adult wing span ranges from 12 to 30 mm. They are weak flyers and do not move far from the site of caterpillar feeding. These moths rarely fly to lights and are not active in lighted areas. Caterpillars are scavengers on a variety of dry plant material and fungi. Some tineids feed on animal material, including animal horns and woolen fabrics. Caterpillars of burrowing webworms, Acrolo-phus spp., make a tubular web in the ground and feed on the roots of grasses....

Chloropidae

Chloropid adults are about 5 mm long and are without bristles and fine setae. Some species are yellow and black, and often have green eyes, from which the family gets its name. Larvae of most species feed in grass stems, a few are scavengers in decaying vegetation and excrement, some are parasitic on other arthropods (spiders), and some are predaceous. Liohippelates species are called eye gnats because they frequently gather around the head and feed on secretions around eyes, and other sites....

Pholcidae

The quiver spiders have very long legs and build irregular or sheet-like webs in dark places. They hang from the webs with their back downward. When the web is vibrated the spider quivers up and down (thus the name). The eggs are wrapped by a few strands of silk and carried by the female in her mouthparts. The tarsi have three claws. The anterior median eyes are small or lacking, and the other eyes are arranged in two groups of three. Tropical species, including Artema mauriciana and...

Monomorium

These ants are relatively small and are distributed in temperate, tropical, and neotropical regions. Workers are 1.2-2 mm long, and the body is dark brown to black, but they are typically black. The body is almost entirely smooth and shiny, with few setae. Antennae are 11- or 12-segmented and with a distinct three-segmented club. The mesoepinotal region has a well-defined constriction, without spines the pedicel is two-segmented. Nests are in soil and workers are predaceous and carnivorous on...

Other ambrosia beetles Monarthrum fasciatum M mali

Adults are 2.5-3 mm long M. fasciatum have yellow bands across the elytra, M. mali are uniformly brown. These species develop in recently cut logs and lumber of practically all hardwoods throughout eastern USA. Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Adults are 1.6-2.5 mm long and dark brown to blackish brown the body is setose. Eggs are laid in tunnels gnawed by the female in ripening coffee berries on the bush females oviposit up to 20 eggs in one berry. Larvae complete development and pupate...

Depressed flour beetle Palorus subdepressus Fig 518d

Adults are about 3 mm long and uniformly brown. The sides of the front of the head extend backward to conceal the front portion of the eyes. Eggs are sticky and food particles adhere to them. Fecundity is about303 eggs at30 Cand 70 RH and 635 eggs at 30 C and 80 RH. At 70 RH, eggs hatch in 3 days at 32.5 C and 20 days at 17.5 C. Larval development is through 7-9 instars on wholewheat at 70 RH it is 28 days at 35 C, and 96 days at 20 C. Humidity threshold for development is 60-70 RH at 20 C....

Athericeridae

These flies are separated from the Ragionidae by the lack of apical setae or spurs on the front tibiae, and a rounded antennal segment 3. The wings ofmost species are banded, such as in Spaniopsis, while the wings of rhagionids (Symphoromyia spp.) are not, but may have dark spots at the front margin. Three genera contain species that suck blood Atherix and Suragina in North America, Europe, and Japan Suragina in Asia and South America and Spaniopsis in Mexico and Australia. The immature stages...

California redandblackfield ant Formica moki F occidua

Workers are 4-7.5 mm long, and the apex of the head is dusky brown. The thorax is red, and the gaster is silvery black. These ants move with a jerky running and stopping behavior. Nests in natural areas are in soil beneath rocks in open, unshaded areas. In the urban environment, nests are located in cracks in sidewalks, along the foundation of buildings, and at the base of trees. Natural food is honeydew from homopterans on shrubs and trees they may forage indoors for household foods. This...

Anostostomatidae

The wetas and king crickets are now grouped in this family. This family is represented by species from almost all parts of the world, and it is especially diverse in the southern hemisphere. These are large orthopterans, which live in humid forested habitats. Suburbanization in some regions of the world has increased their access to peridomestic habitats. Aboreal tree weta, Hemideina thoracica, H. trewicki, H. crassidens, H. femorata Adults are 40-60 mm long. The body is smooth and shiny, and...

I

Biology ofthe shore fly Scatella stagnalis in rockwool under greenhouse conditions. Ent. Exp. Appl., 98 (2001), 317-28. Vibe-Peterson, S. Development, survival and fecundity of the urine fly, Scatella (Teichomyza) jusca and predation by the black dumpfly, Hydrotaea aenescens. Ent. Exp. Appl., 87 (1998), 157-69. Wheeler, M. R. Geographical survey of Drosophilidae Nearctic species, pp. 99-121. In Ashburner, M. (ed.) TheGeneticsand Biology ojDrosophila. New York Academic Press, 1981....

Bibionidae

Diptera Unter Der Haut

These flies are 6-15 mm long and characterized by an enlarged abdomen and short legs the antennae are slightly longer than Figure 7.1 Diptera. (a) Syluicola fenestralis wing (Anisopodidae) (b) Dilophusfebrilis, female head (Bibionidae) (c) D.febrilis, male head (d) Aedesaegypti, female head and thorax (Culicidae) (e) Culicoides sp. (Ceratopogonidae) (f) Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae) (g) Drosophila sp. (Drosophilidae) (h) Musca domestica (Muscidae) (i) Fannia canicu-laris (Muscidae) (j)...

Baldfaced hornet Dolichovespula maculata Fig 914d h

Workers are 14-18 mm long and black with white markings. The dorsal surfaces of gaster segments 1-3 are entirely black. Nests are usually made in forested or undisturbed areas. In the urban environment, nests are established in ornamental bushes and trees, electric power poles, houses, sheds, and other structures. Nearly all are constructed in exposed locations Figure 9.14 Hymenoptera Vespidae. (a) Paravespula maculifrons, head anterior lateral view of worker (b) Vespula squamosa, worker (c) V....

Ptinidae

Lyctus Cavicollis

Spider beetles are 1.5-4.5 mm long, oval or cylindrical beetles that resemble large mites or small house spiders the larvae are C-shaped. Spider beetles are cosmopolitan pests that are scavengers on dry animal and vegetable material. Larvae are in cracks and crevices in cabinets and in floorboards where they feed on organic debris, including wool dust, and rodent droppings. Full-grown larvae create shallow pupal Figure 5.13 Coleoptera Lyctidae. (a) Lyctus planicollis (b) Lyctoxylon japonum (c)...

Squarenecked grain beetle Cathartus quadricollis Fig 56b

Adults are about 2 mm long, and the oval body is shiny, reddish brown, and somewhat flattened. This species is similar in appearance to the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus suri-namenis, but lacks the six projections on the lateral margins. Larval development at 80 RH is 24-26 days at 25 C, and 20 days or less at30 C. This species is cosmopolitan and has been found in wheat, rolled barley, rice, dried fruits, cacao, tobacco, and oil palms. In the USA it attacks maize in the field, and is...

Bostrichidae

Bostrichidae Larvae

Bostrichids are 3-6 mm long, and reddish-brown to black. They have a tuberculate and rasplike pronotum, and the body is truncate posteriorly. The head is directed down and not visible from above, the thorax is large and gives the adult a humpbacked appearance. Larvae are curved, the head is greatly reduced and the thorax enlarged. These beetles are distributed in the tropics and subtropics many species in the family feed on wood, while others attack grain in storage. They feed in the sapwood of...

Formica

Workers are 2.5-8 mm long, and the body is brownish black to black, sometimes with reddish-brown head. Antennae are 12-segmented and without a club the epinotum is without spines, and the pedicel is one-segmented. They forage during the day, and are general scavengers and predators on other insects and nectar feeders, and they collect honeydew from aphids. Some species are social parasites and young queens enter the nest of other ants and kill the resident queen. Many species build mounds over...

Gryllotalpidae

Mole crickets are brown to brownish black, and the body is usually covered with fine setae. Antennae are short and the front legs are very broad and have large spines (dactyls) for digging. These insects burrow in moist soil, usually along the edge of ponds and streams they tunnel 150-200 mm below the surface. The males stridulate. They are capable flyers, and are attracted to bright outdoor lights at night. Mole crickets are pests of commercial turfgrass because they tunnel in soil, expose...

Household fungus beetle Adistemia watsoni Fig 512b

Adults are about 1.5 mm long and brown to dark brown. Coxae 1 and 2 are contiguous, and abdominal segment 1 is fused to the metasternum between the hind legs. Eggs are laid singly on the fungus substrate however, oviposition does not occur under conditions of high humidity. Hatching occurs in about 6 days. Larvae remain in food source and migration is limited when food is plentiful. Larval development is about 13 days, and mortality increases with high humidity. Prior to pupation, last-stage...

Limacodidae

The caterpillars in this family are short, fleshy, and appear somewhat like a slug. The thoracic legs are small and there are no prolegs on the abdominal segments they move with a slow, creeping motion. Adults have a wing span of about 35 mm, and have a large and hairy body. Pupation occurs in oval, silken cocoons spun between leaves or attached to twigs. The cocoon is egg-shaped or nearly spherical, and often covered with urticating (poisonous or stinging) hairs the cocoon has a hole covered...

Salticidae

They have a short body and stout legs with two tarsal claws. The eyes extend the entire length of the head region of the cephalothorax, and these spiders appear to have excellent vision. They use their eyes to hunt Figure 18.8 Arthropoda Aranea. (a) Plectreurys tristis (b) Plexippus paykulli male (c) P. paykulli female (d) Latrodectus mactans female, thorax and abdomen of female (e) L. mactans female, cephalothorax and abdomen venter (f) Salticus scenicus (g)...

Culicidae

Anopheles Aedes Culex Wings

Mosquitoes are important blood-feeding insects around the world. They are vectors of several human diseases, including malaria, yellow fever, encephalitis, dengue, and filari-asis. Adults are 3-9 mm long with scales on their body and wings, and they have a long, slender proboscis. Females of most species take a blood meal, while males and the females of other species feed only on nectar and other plant juices. Larval stages are aquatic and occur in a variety of habitats, including standing or...

Blaberidae

These cockroaches are ovoviviparous they turn and retract the formed ootheca and incubate itinternally. In general, the reproductive potential of females is limited and nymphs develop slowly some species are parthenogenetic. The legs are usually short and the femora of the front leg has one or more, short, robust spines. Many species have a hard and pitted integument and are adapted for burrowing. Figure 4.2 Blattaria Blaberidae. (a) Blaberus craniifer male (b) B. craniifer nymph (c) B....

Rhopalidae

These insects are usually less than 10 mm long, and distinguished by many veins on the membranous portion of the forewings. They differ from coreids and other hemipterans in lacking functional scent glands. They are usually found on weeds and grasses, but one species, the boxelder bug, feeds on trees. All are plant-feeders, usually on green ripe seeds. In Japan, several species overwinter in small to large numbers around the perimeter ofbuildings, including Coriomeri scabrio-cornis, Rhophalus...

Blattellidae

These cockroaches carry the eggcase externally. The majority of species turn the eggcase on its side after formation. This position is more streamlined and probably maintains their ability to move into narrow harborages. These cockroaches are characterized by legs that are long, slender, and with small and large spines the ventral surface of the tarsi has spines. Many species have fully developed wings, but some have reduced wings in one or both sexes. Sternum 7 of the female is broad and...

Tetramorium

This is a large and widespread Old World genus, which contains several cosmopolitan tramp species. Workers are 2.5-4 mm long and the body color ranges from yellowish brown through brown to blackish brown the legs are usually lighter in color. Antennae are 12-segmented and with a three-segmented club. The thorax is slender and the epinotum has spines the pedicel is two-segmented. The femora are noticeably enlarged. Nests are in soil, often under stones, boards, sidewalks, or around building...

Inorganic insecticides

Inorganic insecticides have a long history of use in household and stored-food pest control this group includes arsenic, boron, mercury, and sulfur. They are stable compounds and toxic to a broad range of animals. Sulfur is one of the oldest pesticides, and is toxic as a contactor stomach poison to mites, spiders, and scale insects, and as a stomach poison for some caterpillars. Sulfur dusts and sprays are also fungicidal. Arsenic-based pesticides are stomach poisons and are typically used for...

Lepismatidae

This family includes the familiar silverfish and firebrats, which are common in both natural and domestic habitats. Outdoor species occur in caves, under stones and debris, and some species are associated with the nests of ants. The domestic species occupy a variety of habitats, and feed on starchy substances and plant material. Acrotelsia collaris Adults are 16-18 mm long, not including the terminal appendages, and about 5 mm wide. The dorsal scales are nearly black, but when lost, the insect...

Anthophoridae

This is the family of cuckoo bees, digger bees, and carpenter bees. Itis a diverse group of species with a greatrange ofhabits and habitats. Cuckoo bees are considered cleptoparasites in the nests of many families of bees. They lack the hairlike setae and pollen baskets ofother bees, and they resemble small wasps. Digger bees store a mixture of honey and pollen for larval food in burrows in the ground a few are cleptoparasites on other members of the Anthophoridae. There are two primary genera...

Insecticidal gas

Methyl bromide is a fumigant insecticide that rapidly kills insects, mites, and nematodes. It penetrates substrates including soil and wood, it usually does not stain or taint commodities, and is noncorrosive and nonflammable. It has a boiling point of 3.6 C and is colorless and odorless at concentrations used for fumigation. Chloropicrin is sometimes added at 2 as a warning indicator when this methyl bromide is used in structures. The mode of action is damage to nerve cell membranes, and it...

Psychodidae

Psychodids are about 5 mm long and usually the legs and wings are covered with fine setae. Some species may resemble moths by their small size, and the densely setose wings. The family is divided into two groups moth flies and sand flies. Moth fly females are not blood-feeding, and have wings that are held roof-like over the body the larvae are aquatic (Fig. 7.5g, h). Sand fly females are blood-feeders, and do not hold their wings roof-like. The larvae of sand flies are not aquatic. Larvae of...

Cleridae

Clerids are 3-24 mm long, elongate, brightly colored, and usually covered with fine setae. They have 11-segmented antennae which are generally serrate, with open or compact clubs. The pronotum is narrower than the base of the elytra. Larvae are 9-13 mm long, soft-bodied, and pale white to purple. Most adults and larvae are predaceous on other insects, and several are predators of beetles infesting structural wood. Females are attracted to freshly cut wood or to heavily infested locations of...

Cerambycidae

Cerambycidae Larvae

Adult longhorned beetles are 3-60 mm long and distinguished by their elongate and cylindrical bodies, bright colors or markings, and antennae thatare usually longer than the body. Larvae are yellowish white, cylindrical, and usually legless. The larval body tapers posteriorly, and the segments near the head are never enlarged or flattened. Some species attack living trees, but the majority of cerambycid larvae feed in wood of dead and down trees. Both hardwood and softwood trees are attacked. A...

Ceratophyllidae

Most species in this family are parasites of rodents about 12 are parasites of birds. The squirrel flea, Orchopeas howardii, is found throughout the USA wherever the gray squirrel (Sriurus griseus) occurs. Adult fleas may disperse from active or abandoned squirrel nests in attics, and enter living spaces. The mouse flea, Leptopsylla segnis, is commonly found on domestic rats, and less commonly on the house mouse (Musmusculus). It is common in Europe and Asia,...

Termitidae

Genera in this family are referred to as the higher termites. This division is based on their lack ofdependence on symbiotic protozoa for cellulose digestion. Over 80 of the genera and 74 of all the species of termites are placed in this family. Itincludes genera and species in all the zoogeographic regions with a wide range of habits, including species that are economically important. This is a large genus with species occurring in mostparts of the tropics and subtropics, butalso in some arid...

Tanbark borer oak longhorn beetle Phymatodes testaceus

Adults are about 14 mm long, elongate, and somewhat flattened. Adults have two color forms thorax brownish yellow or dark brown with light brown elytra, and, thorax, abdomen, and legs reddish yellow, and bluish-black elytra. Eggs are laid on the surface and in cracks in the bark ofdead oak trees, and occasionally in hemlock bark. Larvae feed in tunnels within the bark and in the sapwood. Larval development is completed in 1 or 2 years, and full-grown larvae tunnel to the outer layer of sapwood...

Astigmata Sarcoptiformes

Thyreophagus Entomophagus

The feeding habits of these mites is variable and ranges from feeding (filter-feeding) on microorganisms to the maceration and ingestion of solid food material. The important species are associated with grain, flour, dried meat and dried fruit, and the skin of vertebrates. They are small, 0.2-1.2 mm long, without a sclerotized dorsal shield, and yellowish white. Palps are two-segmented and the chelicerae are shaped like pincers. Stigmata and trachea are absent, and respiration is primarily...

Rhaphidophoridae

Adults and nymphs are brown to dark gray, but may be mottled brown and black. The antennae are usually much longer than the body, and the hind legs are large they are primarily terrestrial. The members of this family are nocturnal, and they are predominantly carnivorous. The peridomestic species with pest status include cave crickets and camel crickets. Cave crickets, camel crickets, stone crickets, Ceuthophilus maculatus, C. pallidus, C. californicus, and C....

New Zealand wood weevil Euophryum confine Fig 57b

Adults are about 3 mm long and reddish brown to blackish brown. Exit holes are about 1.5 mm diameter, and have a jagged edge. Frass is similar to that produced by anobiid beetles, but the pieces are less rounded and not powdery as in lyctids. This species is common in woodlands where it is found in standing trees and fallen logs. It is native to New Zealand but it has become established in the UK. E. confine is a secondary pest of building timbers since it is found exclusively in timbers...

Modified environments

the increase ofpopulations ofstored-productinsectpests. Ideal conditions for stored-productinsects are 25-32 Cand 65-75 RH. Above and below this range insect growth and fitness are reduced, and in extreme conditions insects die. Most stored-product insects are killed when exposed to 40 C for 24 h, 45 C for 12 h, 50 C for 5 min, 55 Cfori min, or 60 C for 30 s. Among the beetles, Lasiodema serricorne and Rhyzopertha dominica are highly tolerant of heat, while Sitophilus spp. and Tribolium...

Cimicidae

Figure Cimex

Cimicids are characterized by a short head that is broadly attached to the prothorax, an oval body, and well-developed eyes. Adults are 3-13 mm long and 3-5 mm broad, yellowish brown to reddish brown, and their body is somewhatflattened. They are wingless, but have small wing pads. Antennae are four-segmented, and the three-segmented proboscis rests in a groove beneath the head and thorax. Nymphs and adult males and females are obligate feeders on vertebrate blood. They are temporary...

Camponotus marginatus decipiens C rasilis Fig 94g

Workers are 4-9 mm long, the head, thorax, and pedicel are yellowish red, and the gaster is black or blackish brown. Gaster segment 1 is lighter in color than the remainder the gaster is smooth and shiny. The clypeus and cheeks have shallow grooves, and the grooves on the cheeks lack short, erect setae. This species frequently nests in structural wood in houses. It is native to North America, and occurs from Nebraska south to Texas, South Carolina, and Florida. It is common in the Gulf Coast...

Hydrophilidae

Water scavenger beetles are 5-40 mm long, oval, and somewhat convex beetles that can be recognized by their clubbed antennae and long maxillary palps. Most species are aquatic. The aquatic species are black, and the metasternum is prolonged into a spine. These beetles are common in ponds and slow-moving streams. Adults are generally scavengers, butwill attack live insects and other aquatic animals, including small fish the larvae are predaceous on other insects. Several species are known to...

Medical injury

Most orders of insects and other arthropods contain species that have medical importance, either because they bite, sting, suck blood, transmit parasites and pathogens, or because they induce allergies, delusional parasitosis, or entomophobia. No medically importantpesthas an exclusively urban distribution all occur in urban and natural habitats, to a greater or lesser degree. However, when these pests occur in or around the living space or workplace, their importance increases and control...

I727

Una molesta avispa Vespula (Paravespula) germanica (Fab.) se ha introducido en Argentina. Gaceta Agron., 3 (1983), 24-8. Green, A., R. D. Akre, and P. J. Landolt. The aerial yellowjacket, Dolichovespula arenaria (Fab.) nesting biology, reproductive production, and behavior (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Melandria, 26 (l976),I-34. Guiglia, D. Les guepes socials d'Europe Occidentale et Septentrionale. Faune Eur. Bassin Mediterr., 6 (1972), 1-181. Ikeda, F. and S. Kodomari. Biology of...

Anthocoridae

These bugs are predaceous on small arthropods, such as mites, thrips, and aphids.They occur on foliage, flowers, under bark, and in leaf litter. Some species live in bird nests. They are elongate oval, 2-5 mm long, and most are black with white markings. Anthocorids are distributed nearly worldwide. Adults of several species, including Lyctocoris campestris and Antho-coris kingi, have been reported to bite people indoors. Xylocoris species are associated with stored products in warehouses and...

Cryptocerus Blattidae

The microbial flora offield-collected cockroaches and other arthropods. J. Environ. Health, 42 (1980), 263-6. Appel, A. G. Water relations and thermal sensitivity of several cockroach species (Dictyoptera Blattidae and Blaberidae). Comp. Bioc. A., 100A (1991), 353-6. Appel, A. G., D. A. Reierson, and M. K. Rust. Comparative water relations and temperature sensitivity ofcockroaches. Comp. Bioc. A., 74A (1983), 357-61. Arnold, J. W. Adaptive features on the tarsi...

Hemiptera

Structure and dynamics of arthropod communities in bat guano deposits in buildings. Can. J. Zool., 59 (1981), 260-70. Britton, W. E. The Hemiptera or sucking lice of Connecticut. Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull., 34 (1923), 807. Brooks, A. R. and L. A. Kelton. Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera of Alberta, Saskatchewan, andManitoba (Hemiptera). Mem. Ento-mol. Soc. Can., 51 (1967), 1-92. China, W. E. and N. C. E. Miller. Check-list and keys to the families...

Pulicidae

Tunga Penetrans

These fleas are parasites of a range of animals, including insectivores, carnivores, hyraxes, and rodents. Several species are cosmopolitan, and are often transported worldwide by humans. Many species are ofmedical or veterinary importance. There are fewer than 200 species in this family. Cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Fig. 16.1a, c) Adults are about 2.5 mm long and brown to yellowish brown males are slightly smaller than females. The head is twice as long as wide there are eightpairs...

Black larder beetle Dermestes ater Fig 59a 510a 5lld

Wings are uniform black or blackish brown, and the abdominal venter is brown and has medial and lateral brown spots on a dark-brown background. Full-grown larvae are 10-14 mm long and dark brown, the dorsal surface has numerous long setae the urogomphi are broad at the base and directed posteriorly. This is one of the most Figure 5.10 Coleoptera Dermestidae adults. (a) Dermestes ater (b) D. carnivorus (c) D. frischii (d) D. lardarius (e) D. maculatus (f) D. peruvianus....

Silky anobiid Priobium sericeum Trypopitys sericeus

Adults are 4.9-6.2 mm long and reddish brown. They are covered with yellowish white setae, and the head is deeply retracted within the prothorax. Antennae are 11-segmented segments 3-7 are distinctly serrate, 8-10 somewhat serrate, and 11 is narrow and elongate. In natural habitats, this species lives in dead tree branches of oak, hickory, and cherry. Indoors itinfests flooring and furniture in buildings. A related species, Priobium punctatum ( Trypopitys), infests Monterey cypress, pine, and...

Sciaridae

Adults are 1-4 mm long, and they are generally black or brownish black and their wings are dark (Fig. 7.7d). The antennae are long and slender, and their eyes are joined above the antennae. Adults are short-lived and are usually found in dark, humid locations. Larvae feed on decaying organic material, including damaged plantroots, rotting leaves, and fungi. They often occur indoors in the moist or wet soil for potted plants, and outdoors in a variety of microhabitats, including rotten wood...

L asius

These ants are common in agricultural fields and urban environments. Workers are 2 4 mm long and the body is brown, dark-brown, to almost black. Antennae are 12-segmented and without a club the maxillary palps are six-segmented, and the terminal segments are approximately the same length. Mesoepinotal depression is distinct, with a pair of spiracles laterally. The pedicel is one-segmented and thin or narrow in profile, and it is almost hidden. Workers are capable of emitting a strong formic...

Scolopendromorpha

Scolopendromorpha

These large centipedes live primarily in the tropics and sub-tropics, but several species occur in peridomestic habitats in temperate regions. There are about 100 species of Cryptops and 90 species worldwide in Scolopendra (Fig. i8.9d). These centipedes are distinguished by large bodies that consist of 25 segments, and by their enlarged terminal legs, which have large spines. They have large poison claws, and a history of biting people. They occur indoors and often find harborage in shoes or...

Bruchidae

Adults are 2-4 mm long and they are robust beetles that appear square atthe posterior and narrowatthe front. These beetles are often called weevils, because their head is slightly narrow and produced forward. Elytra do not cover the tip of the abdomen, and the antennae are serrate. The species that are pests of stored foods attack only pulses (the edible seeds of leguminous plants), such as Phaseolus vulgaris, P. lunatus (beans), Vigna subterrana (groundnut), V. radiatea (mung bean), and V....

Lepidopsocidae

Species in this family are commonly found on trees, shrubs, and in dry ground habitats. Their head is very broad and the eyes are large and extend to the dorsal surface of the head. The antennae have more than 20 segments. They have pointed, slender wings the wings and body are usually covered with scales, which is the basis for the family name. Figure 15.2 Psocoptera. (a) Badonnelia titei female (b) B. titei male (c) Blephotroctes ghesquierei (d) Cerobasis annulata (e) Embidopso-cus oleaginous...

Liposcelididae

Most of the species in this family occur in dry locations, such as under tree bark and in dead leaves, but some are found in bird and mammal nests. The species that are found indoors are usually located in dusty places with high temperature and humidity. These psocids are wingless and they have enlarged hind femora (lipo, Greek for fat scelus, Latin for leg). A large number of Liposcelis species have been recorded from stored foods and grain indoors. Males are usually identified to species by...

Household springtail Entomobrya kanaba e unostrigata

Collembola Species Sketch

The body is slender and brownish black to gray, and the antennae are long. Large numbers and extensive infestations have been reported in domestic habitats, such as in kitchens, bathrooms, and clothes closets. Large numbers may also occur around the outside of buildings. They may be dispersed from one location to another in household materials. Entomobrya nivalis (Fig. 6.2c) Adults have four-segmented antennae inserted on the anterior portion of the head, in front...

Driedfruit beetle Carpophilus hemipterus Fig 515b e

The body is oval and black with two large brown spots on the elytra the legs are reddish brown. It occurs on ripe and decomposing fruit in the field, and is a pest of dried fruit in storage. In date palm groves, C. dimidiatus and C. hemipterus infest fermenting dates on the ground. C. hemipterus also infests stored maize and maize meal, wheat, oats, rice, beans, nuts, copra, spices, and medical drugs. Eggs are laid singly hatching occurs in i-4 days fecundity is 2i34...

Phoridae

Megaselia Rufipes Larvae

Phorids have a characteristic hump-backed appearance and wing venation that is limited to strong veins at the front margin. Adults are 3-5 mm long the thorax is generally brownish black, the abdomen brown to yellowish brown. Adults are strong flyers, but have an erratic movement behavior when they land on surfaces. They are sometimes attracted to decaying organic matter and chemical solvents, and can be found at windows and lights. Full-grown larvae are 4-6 mm long, yellowish white, and they...

Reduviidae

Assassin bugs are primarily predators of other insects, but some feed on humans. These bugs are widely distributed around the world, butmostare tropical. They are usually brown to blackish brown, but some are brightly colored red, orange, or yellow nymphs are often brightly colored and spiny. These bugs have an elongate head that is narrow behind the eyes, and they have a three-segmented proboscis. They are primarily diurnal, but some species huntand feed atnight. The subfamily Triatominaehas...

Twobanded fungus beetle Alphitophagus bifasciatus

Palembus Beetle

Adults are about 3 mm long and elongate-oval. The body is reddish brown, and there are two black bands across the elytra. This species is cosmopolitan and a general feeder on fungi and molds. It often occurs as a scavenger in waste grain and milled products. Larvae occur in moist maize meal and in wet grain in ship holds and in storage. African fungus beetle, Alphitobius viator (Fig. 5.i8j) Adults are 5.5-6.6 mm long, brown, and the body is slender oval. Antennal segments 5-10 are asymmetrical,...

Hornets

These vespid wasps are usually black and yellow. In the USA, the term hornet is often applied to the baldfaced hornet, Dolichovespula maculata, and European hornet, Vespa crabro, and sometimes to all aerial-nestingyellowjackets. Technically, only species in the genus Vespa are considered hornets. The genera of true hornets, Provespa and Vespa, occur throughout the northern hemisphere and in Southeast Asia. The three species of Provespa are only found in Southeast Asia and are nocturnal. Vespa...

Pentatomidae

These bugs are called stink bugs because of the disagreeable odor they emitwhen handled or disturbed. The adultis usually broad, oval, with the head and thorax forming a triangle the antennae are five-segmented. Many are brightly colored or conspicuously marked. Most species are plant-feeders, but some feed on other insects, and some on both. Pest status is based on overwintering of adults of several species that occur in urban and suburban areas. Individuals move toward sheltered sites in late...

Larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus Fig 5i8g

Alphitobius Laevigatus

The body is reddish brown to black, and there are distinct longitudinal striations on the elytra. Full-grown larvae are about 15 mm long and brown. Eggs are laid singly and placed in crevices hatching is in 3-4 days at 30 C. Females lay four or five eggs per day and prefer food with moisture contentofabout 18 fecundity is 360-450 eggs. Larval development takes 22-92 days at 30 C, and there are 9-11 instars. Overcrowding slows larval development and sometimes prevents...

Gryllidae

These crickets appear somewhatflatdorsally because a portion of the front wing is held horizontal over the body, instead of being held vertically, as in grasshoppers. The female ovipositor is usually needle-like, and the cerci are long. Eggs are laid singly or in small batches in soil, or in crevices. Nymphs and adults feed primarily on vegetation. Males stridulate by rubbing together modified regions of the front wings. Crickets do nothave a fixed song length. They will sing indefinitely as...

Myrmeleontidae

Larvae of this family are called antlions (also doodlebugs), and are the most familiar form. The adults have a 40-80 mm wingspan, and resemble damselflies (Odonata), but have short, clubbed antennae. Larvae are predators and remain in sandy soil or in shallow, cone-shaped pits and wait in the bottom for ants (hence the common name) or other insects to become trapped. The mostcommon antlion around the perimeter ofhouses in northern USA is Myrmeleon immaculatus. Adults of the spotted-winged...

Megaselia scalaris Fig 7ij Fig 76ad Adults are 1723

Mm long and the body is yellowish brown dorsal abdominal sclerites are yellow to yellowish brown. Wings are clear to dusky, and the halteres are yellow. Full-grown larvae are about 4 mm long and pale yellow the posterior spiracles are dark brown. Eggs are usually laid at the edge of the substrate, and females oviposit regularly for about 30 days. Fecundity is about 600 eggs, but can be as many as 1000. Hatching occurs in about 24 h itis about3ihat22 C and i8hat2g C. Larvae immediately enter the...

Window gnat Sylvicola fenestralis Anisops Fig 71a

Adults are about 6 mm long, their wings are dark brown with scattered pale spots, and the antennae are longer than the head. Full-grown larvae are yellowish brown and 12-15 mm long yellowish white and nearly cylindrical the head is small and with dorsal eye-spots. Each body segment has a narrow constriction at the anterior end, which forms an enlarged ring abdominal segment 10 terminates in five short tubercles. Adults are often found indoors at windows outdoors they occur in small swarms late...

Ceratopogonidae

These dark-colored and slender midges are 1-3 mm long and have dark or spotted wings (Fig. 7.ie). Females of most species suck blood of vertebrates or other insects, and their bite is painful. Males do not feed on blood. Females thatattack humans are sometimes called no-see-ums or sand flies. They occur in coastal areas where they can rapidly colonize sandy areas in land development sites. During warm weather, these biting midges can occur in large numbers, and their biting behavior can affect...

Yellowbanded clerid beetle Trogodendron fasciculatum

Adults are about 20 mm long, and the antennae are yellow. Full-grown larvae are 20-25 mm long, and have paired processes at the end of the abdomen. This species occurs in Australia and is a predator of buprestid and longhorn beetle larvae. Other Cleridae Necrobia violacea adults are about 5 mm long and metallic dark blue or dark green, and with dark brown or black antennae and legs. It is a predator of Dermestes larvae in warehouses. Thaneroclerus buqueti adults are 5.0-6.5 mm long, and...

Mantidae

Species in this family are exclusively carnivorous and occur in all warm regions ofthe world. Included in this group are species that commonly occur on ornamental trees and shrubs in urban and suburban areas. They are called praying mantids because oftheir habit ofholding the front legs in an attitude ofprayer. The South African name, hottentot god, seems to have been given for a similar reason. There are many mantid species in Africa, and some of the most common in peridomestic habitats...

Scorpiones

Scorpions are well-known and easily distinguished arthropods. The carapace is unsegmented and has a pair ofmedian eyes and 3-5 pairs oflateral simple eyes. In frontand above the base of the pedipalps are large, paired chelicerae that are positioned horizontally and used for crushing and shredding food. Scorpions have large pedipalps with large claws. The abdomen is divided into two portions a broad preabdomen (mesosoma) consisting of seven segments that are as wide as the cephalothorax, and a...

Belostomatidae

Giant water bugs are aquatic and prey on snails, small fish, tadpoles, young frogs, and insects in the water. They occur in North and Central America, South Africa, India, and parts of Asia. These are large insects and can reach a length of 80mm two Central American species, Lethocerus grandis and L. maximus, are more than 100 mm long. Adults are elongate oval and Figure 8.1 Hemiptera Belostomatidae, Pentatomidae, Rhopali-dae. (a) Lethocerus americanus adult (Belostomatidae) (b) Halyomorpha...