Broadhorned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus Fig 518a

Adults are about 4 mm long and reddish brown; there are broad horns on the mandibles of the male. Eggs are laid singly on the food. Hatching occurs in 5 days at 30 °C and 8 days at 20 °C; fecundity is about 360 eggs in 5 months. Larval development takes about 39 days, and the pupal period is about 10 days at 27 °C. Development limits are 15-32 °C; optimum conditions are 24-30 °C. Larvae show a tolerance for fluctuations in temperature and humidity. It is a cosmopolitan pest of cereal and animal products, including flour, cornmeal, bran, and farina. It is usually associated with infestations of moths. G. cornutus larvae will feed on the eggs and injured adults, larvae, and pupae of the Mediterranean flour moth (Anagasta kuzhnizWa).

Slender-horned flour beetle, Gnathocerus maxillosus (Fig. 5.18b) Adults are about 3 mm long and have a small horn on the mandible of the male. Eggs are laid singly on the food, and hatching occurs in about 4 days at 27.5-30 °Cand75%RH. Egg hatch is 92% at 27.5 °C and 64% at 30 °C. Larval developmenttakes 34 days at30 °C, and there are eightor nine instars. Larval mortality is 31% at 30 °C and only 1% at 27.5 °C. The pupal period is 6 days at 27.5 °C and 5 days at 30 °C. Development from egg to adult is 115-132 days, depending upon humidity. This species is distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical regions, and in warm temperate zones. It infests cereal grains, pumpkins, tamarind seeds, pulses, nutmeg, and peanuts.

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