Brown cockroach Periplaneta brunnea Fig 41d 48c e

Adults are 31-37 mm long. The body is dark brown to reddish brown; the markings on the pronotum are pale brown. Wings cover the tip of the abdomen in both sexes, and the cerci are short with a blunt tip. The male has a short, truncate supraanal plate (epiproct). The first eight and the last four antennal segments of the first-stage nymph are pale yellow to white; the intermediate segments are brown. The mesothorax has a clear medial area, and there are pale spots on the lateral margins of the second abdominal segment. This species closely resembles P. americana, but it is distinguished by characters of the supraanal plate (epiproct) and cerci on the adults. In P. brunnea, the supraanal plate is short and the cerci are short and have a blunt tip. In P. americana the supraanal plate (epiproct) is long and notched, and the cerci are long and tapered at the tip.

The ootheca is 12-16 mm long and brown; the egg indentations are not distinct. Oothecae of P. brunnea are about 2.6 mm longer than those of P. australasiae, and 5.2 mm longer than P. americana. The ootheca contains about 24 eggs at 27 °C and 65-75% RH; about 20 eggs per ootheca hatch in 35 days at 27 °C, and 61-63 days at24°C. Fecundity is about30 oothecae, but many are not viable. The ootheca is deposited 20-24 h after formation, and the next is produced in 5-6 days. The female secretes from her mouthparts a frothy white substance, which is applied to the substrate where the ootheca will be placed. After deposition, the ootheca may be covered with additional frothy secretion. This substance hardens to become strong cement. Oothecae are often partially covered with pieces of debris from the substrate. Parthenogenesis occurs in P. brunnea, but only about 9% of the eggs hatch and complete development to adult female. Nymph development at 24 °C is about 263 days for females, and 268 days for males. Adults live about 8 months or up to 20 months, depending on environmental conditions. Adults mate within 7 days ofmaturation, and the first ootheca appears in about 14 days.

This species is probably native to Africa and is now distributed in tropical regions around the world. It is carried by commerce and shipments of food to temperate regions, and it survives in heated environments in urban areas. Populations are known from the UK and parts ofEurope.Itwasfirstreported in the USA in 1907 in Illinois, and is now well established from

Florida west to Texas; it has been introduced into California. P. brunnea occurs primarily indoors, but also lives outdoors around trees and in sewers.

Smokybrown cockroach, palmettobug, Periplaneta fuliginosa (Fig. 4.8g, i) Adults are 25-38 mm long and the body is uniformly dark brown to blackish brown. The pronotum is shiny, blackish brown, and without stripes or other markings. Wings are fully developed in both sexes. They are strong flyers, even females carrying an ootheca. Male abdominal segment 1 has a broad, shallow depression bearing a tuft of setae; the supraanal plate (epiproct) is apically truncate and not deeply notched, and with thickened structures on the ventral surface near the apex. First-instar nymphs are brown to dark brown. Antenna has the first 3-6 segments and last 4 or 5 segments pale brown, the intermediate segments are dark brown; tips of maxillary and labial palps are yellowish white. The mesono-tum is lighter in color than the pronotum, the metanotum is uniformly dark brown, and abdominal segments 1 and 2 are brownish white ventrally. Young nymphs often move aboutwith their abdomen elevated, and slightly bentanteriorly. Late-instar nymphs are uniformly reddish brown.

The ootheca is 8-14 mm long and has distinct indentations to show the position of the eggs. The ootheca contains 20-28 eggs, and hatching occurs in 100 days at 20 °C, 70 days at 23 °C, 56 days at 25.5 °C, and 37 days at 30 °C. It is deposited about 24 h after formation, and the next ootheca is produced in about 10 days; fecundity is 15-20 oothecae. Nymph development is 274-439 days at 21.5 °C, and 179-191 days at 30-36 °C. The number of instars is 10-12 for females, and 9-11 for males; duration of female instars ranges from 8.5 days for first-instar to 165 days for twelfth-instar. Adults live 18-24 months, depending on environmental conditions and resources. Adults and nymphs are cold-hardy and overwinter in protected sites outdoors in temperate regions. Females produce a volatile sex pheromone that initiates male courtship behavior. When the male locates the female he turns, raises his wings, and attempts to back under her abdomen. Ifreceptive, the female mounts the back of the male and feeds on exudates from the tergal gland. Tergal stimulation by the female then initiates copulation from the male. Adults mate 7-10 days after maturation, and the first ootheca appears in about 14 days. A female may prepare an oviposition site by gnawing a hole in a soft substrate; the ootheca is then deposited and partially covered with debris.

Outdoor habitats for this species are moist, shaded sites with abundant vegetation. In natural areas these include sites such as in tree holes, under the bark of trees, leaf litter, or the bracts of palm trees, such as the fan palm (Sabal palmetto), which is the derivation of the common name, palmettobug. The cuticle of P. fuliginosa is very permeable to water, and it has the highest rate of cuticular water loss of all the cockroach pest species. Because of its high water loss rate, P. fuliginosa generally requires moist habitats with available water. Much of the habitat selection and survival of this species is linked to maintaining water balance. In the urban environment, it occurs primarily outdoors among landscaping vegetation and moist ground cover around the perimeter of buildings. Infestations may be completely within structures, but usually there is some exchange of adults or nymphs with outdoor habitats and populations. In temperate regions, it occurs indoors and in heated locations such as greenhouses. This species is native to temperate regions of eastern Asia, including Japan, Korea, and northern China. In the USA breeding populations are distributed in all of the southeastern states from Texas to eastern Virginia. In central and southern Florida, it is uncommon in urban areas. Isolated populations occur in urban areas of Orange County and Sacramento, California.

Periplaneta japónica (Fig. 4.8h) Adults are 25-35 mm long. The body is shiny and uniformly blackish brown to black; the tarsi and labial and maxillary palps are brown. Wings of the male extend beyond the tip of the abdomen; wings of the female extend to about one-half the length of the abdomen. Male abdominal segment 1 has a broad, shallow depression bearing a tuft of setae. Male supraanal plate (epiproct) is sclerotized, the sides are parallel, and it has a deep notch on the posterior margin. First-instar nymph is uniformly dark brown; the tips ofthe maxillary and labial palps are white to brownish white. This species is cold-hardy. Nymphs and adults are capable of surviving 120 days and 90 days, respectively, atabout 5.5 °C, following preliminary exposure of 28 days to 15 °C. There are nine instars at 27 °C, the final instar is prolonged at low temperatures, and oothecae are deposited at 15 °C but do not hatch. Incubation is about 27 days at 27 °C, 63 days at 20 °C, and hatching does not occur below 20 °C. It is distributed in Japan, China, and Russia. This species occurs primarily outdoors, but some populations have adapted to houses. Itis a pestprimarily in central and northern Japan.

Methana marginalis (Fig. 4.9e) Adults are 25-29 mm long and the body is brown with a pale white margin on the anterior and lateral edges of the pronotum. Several species of Methana occur in Australia, where they live in natural habitats under the bark of trees or logs. This species occurs in Queensland and Western Australia; it sometimes enters houses.

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