California redandblackfield ant Formica moki F occidua

Workers are 4-7.5 mm long, and the apex of the head is dusky brown. The thorax is red, and the gaster is silvery black. These ants move with a jerky running and stopping behavior. Nests in natural areas are in soil beneath rocks in open, unshaded areas. In the urban environment, nests are located in cracks in sidewalks, along the foundation of buildings, and at the base of trees. Natural food is honeydew from homopterans on shrubs and trees; they may forage indoors for household foods. This species is native to North America.

Formica neoclara Workers are 3-6 mm long; the head is yel-lowishred ventrally and darkreddish brown dorsally; the thorax is reddish yellow to reddish brown, and the gaster is dark brown. Nests arenotformed into amound, but they may extend 1 m in circumference and have several nest openings. This species occurs along streets and parks, and along the foundations of buildings in western USA (Colorado). Natural food includes the honeydew of aphids and membracids, and live and dead insects. This species is native to North America and occurs fromNorthand SouthDakota to Washington, and south to New Mexico.

Red ant, red wood ant, Formica rufa Workers are 4.5-9 mm long and bicolored red and brownish black, but with a dorsal dark patch on the head and promesonotum; eyes have a few microscopic hairs. Long erect setae are abundant on the gula, clypeus, dorsum of the head, pedicel, and gaster, but never on the scape or posterior border of occiput. Nests are common in lowland woods and undisturbed areas. This species builds large mound nests with leaves and twigs; nests may be isolated or in small groups. Large colonies have 100 000-400 000 individuals and 100 or more queens. Foraging trails from a large nest may extend 100 m, and they are usually directed to aphid-infested trees. The primary food is aphid honeydew, but they also prey on other arthropods and small animals. Workers are aggressive and they will eject formic acid when disturbed. Winged forms emerge from the colony in May until early June. New nests are formed from colony splitting in the spring, but single queens may be adopted in F. rufa nests. This species may be native to Europe, but it is nearly cosmopolitan. It occurs in North America and continental Europe; it is common in the UK. A form of F. rufa, which has colonies with a single queen, occurs in continental Europe. It is sometimes referred to as F. rufa rufa. The workers are large and conspicuously hairy or setose; males may have large setae on the gena below the eye.

Formica rufibaris Workers are 4-6 mm long and slender; they have a reddish brown head and thorax, and a blackish brown abdomen. Nests may be in forested areas, orchards, and gardens. This species occurs in western USA.

Formica subpolita Workers are 3-4 mm long and shining brownish red or dark brown, and the thorax, pedicel, and legs are reddish brown. Nests are under stones in bare or grassy areas. This species is common in the San Francisco Bay area of California, but occurs throughout western USA.

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