Camponotus marginatus decipiens C rasilis Fig 94g

Workers are 4-9 mm long, the head, thorax, and pedicel are yellowish red, and the gaster is black or blackish brown. Gaster segment 1 is lighter in color than the remainder; the gaster is smooth and shiny. The clypeus and cheeks have shallow grooves, and the grooves on the cheeks lack short, erect setae. This species frequently nests in structural wood in houses. It is native to North America, and occurs from Nebraska south to Texas, South Carolina, and Florida. It is common in the Gulf Coast states.

Camponotus discolor Workers are 3.5-7.5 mm long, and the head, thorax, and pedicel are yellowish red or reddish brown; the gaster is blackish brown to black. The anterior portion of the head has distinct punctures. Colonies are established in structural wood, but they are small and may not cause significant damage. There are no records of this species foraging indoors. Itis a native species, and occurs from Kansas and Iowa to Ohio, south to Texas and Florida.

Florida carpenter ant, bulldog ant, Camponotus floridanus (= C. abdominalis floridanus) (Fig. 9.4a) Workers are 5.5-10 mm long and the head is opaque, but the thorax and gaster are shiny. The head is reddish brown, the thorax and pedicel are yellowish red, while the scape and gaster are blackish brown to black. Gaster segment 1 may be yellowish red. Legs have numerous erect or suberect setae, and the body has abundant, long setae. Nests are in rotting logs and stumps, and sometimes partly in the ground. Indoors the nests may be in kitchens, roofs, and porches. Colonies are moderate to large, and there is one queen. Winged forms emerge from June to August. Natural food includes live and dead insects, honey bee hives, and honeydew; workers forage during the day and night. Indoors they feed on a variety of household foods. This species is native to North America, and occurs from Alabama east to North Carolina and Florida; it apparently does not occur far inland. The small wasp,

Obeza floridana (Eucharitidae) is a parasite of this carpenter ant.

Northern carpenter ant, Camponotus herculeanus Workers are 5-15 mm long, the head and gaster are dull black; the thorax is reddish brown to reddish black. The scape does not have erect setae, except for a small cluster at the tip; the apex of the scape reaches or slightly surpasses the posterior border of the head. Nests in natural areas are in standing trees, fallen logs, and tree stumps. In the urban environment nests occur in moisture-damaged and sound structural wood. Colonies are in damp or decaying wood; mature colonies have 12 000-50 000 workers. Egg-laying begins soon after the emergence of winged females and males, which is in May and early June. Eggs are present in the colony between July and September, and are probably laid continuously throughout summer. Larval development is during the summer; the main period of larval growth is June and July. Pupae are present in the colony from the end of June to the end of August, and the pupal period lasts 25-40 days. There may be little larval growth after July, although workers actively forage until November. Foraging during this time may be to build body food reserves, such as carbohydrates and lipids, for overwintering. The larval life cycle in some regions may require 2 years, with larvae spending two winters in the nest. Winged forms emerge during late summer, at the time larval growth stops. The winged forms overwinter in the nest and leave to mate in spring. Natural food is primarily honeydew, plant sap, and live and dead insects. Indoors they feed on sweets, raw and cooked meats, fruit, and other materials. This species occurs in North America, Europe, and Asia.

Camponotusligniperda Workers are 6-14 mm long; the thorax is bright yellowish red to brownish red. The gaster is shiny black with short setae; the base of the gaster is sometimes reddish brown. Nests are usually along borders of woodlands, under stones, or in dry stumps. In the urban environmentnests may occur in structures. Natural food includes live and dead insects, and honeydew. Workers are aggressive and will freely bite and attack other Camponotus or Formica species. The large C. ligniperda workers can cut through the thorax or crush the head of their opponent with their strong mandibles. This species occurs from central Spain to western Russia and from Sweden south to Sicily.

Camponotus maccooki Workers are 6-12 mm long, and the body is yellowish brown or amber-colored. The head is blackish brown and the gaster is partially or wholly blackish brown. This species is native to Mexico, but occurs in New Mexico, Arizona, California, and Colorado. Itis a household pestinNew Mexico.

Spotted sugar ant, Camponotus maculatus Major workers are about 9-12 mm long; the head and gaster are black; the abdomen has pale brown to brownish white markings. Minor workers are about 8 mm long and pale brown, and with pale brown markings on the abdomen. Nests are in the soil under stones or logs, and the nest entrance is often circled by loose soil. This species is nocturnal, and it is a household pest in Africa. In Saudi Arabia, it is the dominant ant species in natural, vegetable, and date palm habitats.

Camponotus modoc (= C. herculeanus subsp. modoc) Workers are 8-14 mm long and black. The gaster is subobaque, exceptfor a narrow band at the posterior edge of each segment; the anterior margin of the clypeus lacks a medial depression; the scape does not have erect hairs, and there are coarse and dense setae on the gaster. One queen usually founds a colony. They are usually established in damp or decaying wood; mature colonies contain 9000-12 000 workers. Egg-laying begins soon after the major emergence ofwinged females and males, which is in April and extends to June. Eggs hatch in 2-5 weeks. Larval development is during the summer, pupae are present in the colony in July, and most ofthe workers have emerged by August and October. Egg production stops in August and September, and the larvae presentin the colony overwinter with the queen. No food is consumed by the colony during the colony dormant phase, which is October through January. Eggproduction resumes and larvae develop into pupae in January and February, during the second year of a new colony. Cannibalism occurs as eggs hatch. Both eggs and first-stage larvae are consumed by the queen and workers, especially at the end of the dormant phase. Some of this food is fed to developing larvae. This species is native to North America, and occurs in the Pacific northwest. Nests in natural areas are in trees and tree stumps; in the urban environment nests occur in structural wood.

Foraging activity begins in May and ends in September, with the peak in July and August. Foraging is primarily nocturnal and the greatest activity is at 20:00-24:00 hand 24:00-4:00 h. Most of the food returned to the nest is liquid and carried by workers in their crop. Workers are unable to ingest solid particles in excess of 100 |j.m, and the majority of water-soluble proteins are imbibed in the field and brought back to the nest as liquids. The most common prey are crickets, grasshoppers, aphids, spiders, fly larvae, and caterpillars. In the domestic and peridomestic habitats, the most common food carried to the nest includes candy, syrup, apples, raisins, and pet food. Minor workers comprise the largest percentage of foragers. The major workers are involved in foraging early and late in the active phase of the colony, which is May through September.

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