Camponotus nearcticus Fig 94e Workers are 4575 mm

long and the body is shiny and black. Legs do not have setae, and the pedicel is narrow in profile. Colonies have 100-300 individuals, and nests are often in trees. Nests in houses are in roofingwoodwork,and usuallyinwoodwithmoisturedamage. They seldom forage indoors. This species is native to North America and ranges from North Dakota to Ontario, Canada south to Colorado and Florida.

Camponotus noveboracensis Workers are 6-13 mm long. The head and gaster are black; the thorax is reddish brown to yellowish red. Nests are usually in wooded areas, in deciduous and pine forests. Moist to wet dead wood is used as a nest site, and sometimes nests are located in soil adjacent to wood. Nests are sometimes made in structures, and workers forage indoors. Natural food includes live and dead insects, and honeydew. This species is native to North America, mainly in northern USA and southern Canada.

Black carpenter ant, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (Fig. 9.3c-f 9.4f) Workers are 6-13 mm long and the body color is typically black; some individuals may have reddish-black thoracic pleu-ron, pedicel, and legs. Body setae are yellowish brown and moderately abundant, especially on the dorsum of the gaster. The scape extends past the posterior border of the head, except in the largest workers. The pronotum is flattened, and noticeably so in large workers. Nests are usually in live and dead standing trees, and in rotting logs and stumps. Indoors they frequently nest in moisture-damaged wood, but they also tunnel into sound wood. Colonies typically have one queen, and when the colony has 2000 or more workers it produces winged reproductives. It takes 3-5 years to achieve the size necessary to produce winged forms. Indoors where colonies remain active and forage for longer periods in the fall, the time needed to achieve this size may be reduced. Mature colonies produce males and winged females yearly. The number of ants in the colony engaged in foraging depends on colony size, and may range from 364 to 1329 ants. Outdoor and indoor colonies are active during the warm season, usually beginning in April and extending to November in some regions; they are inactive from about December to April. In winter, nests may contain up to 500 winged females and up to 8000 larvae.

Natural food is primarily live and dead insects, honeydew, the juices of fruit, and plant sap. Indoors they feed on sweets, raw and cooked meats, fruit, and various other materials. Depending on the food available, C. pennsylvanicus forms ground trails 2-3 cm wide, from the nest to relatively stable food sources, such as honeydew producers or indoors. Foraging is primarily at night, and usually peaks soon after sunset and extends into the night, and peaks again before sunrise; daytime foraging may occur. Foraging activity is generally influenced by temperature. This species is native to North America, and occurs from North Dakota to Quebec, Canada, and south to Texas and Florida.

Camponotus tortuganus (= Camponotus maculatus subsp. tortuganus) (Fig. 9.4h) Workers are 6-11 mm long, and the body color is reddish brown. The head is darker than the thorax, and the gaster is dark brown to blackish brown, but there is much variation. The anterior margin of the clypeus extends forward as a prominent lobe, and the clypeus has a well-defined ridge. Tibiae of all legs lack erect setae, and the middle and hind tibia lack a row of bristles. Body setae are long and yellowish brown. Nests in natural habitats are usually in rotting wood and in the soil beneath stones. Indoors, nests are in moisture-damaged wood and persistfor manyyears. This species is native to North America, and occurs in the southern half of Florida, including the Florida Keys, and Dry Tortugas.

Camponotus vagus Workers are 6-12 mm long. The body is uniformly black, and with numerous setae; there are numerous setae on the gaster. Nests in natural habitats are in dry rotten wood among roots, and under stones in dry and sunny locations. Indoors, nests are in moisture-damaged wood. Natural food includes live and dead insects, and honeydew. Winged forms usually occur in July in central Europe. It is aggressive and workers will bite freely when nests are disturbed. This species is distributed in southern Europe, and is abundant in the Mediterranean area; it occurs from Portugal to southern Russia, and from Poland to the mountains of North Africa.

Camponotus vicinus Workers are 6-14 mm long. The head is dull black to reddish black, the thorax is brownish red with black markings, while the gaster is shiny black. Nests in natural habitats are usually in dry and sunny areas, under stones and sometimes in dry decayed logs. Colonies are composed of as many as 100 000 workers, with multiple queens. This species is an occasional pest indoors. Natural food includes other insects and honeydew. It is native to North America and occurs from North and South Dakota west to the Pacific coast.

Other Camponotus The workers of the giant carpenter ant, C. laevigatus,are 8-10 mm long and shiny black, and this species is a nuisance in the Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states. In Europe, the species causing structural damage include C. herculeanus, C. ligniperda,and C. vagus.The Hawaiian carpenter ant, C. variegatus, is pale brown and winged queens are about 1.2 cm long. Winged adults may be confused with swarming termites.

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