Chrysomelidae

Adults are 6-11 mm long and nearly oval. Legs are short, and in some species the hind femora are enlarged. Larvae are soft-bodied and frequently have a highly pigmented integument. All members of the family feed on the foliage of plants.

Fruit tree leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta cavicollis Adults are about 5 mm long, shining red, and coarsely punctured. Full-grown larvae are about 6 mm long, dark brown, and with black and yellow spots. This species occurs in southern Canada and in eastern USA south to North Carolina and west to the Rocky Mountains. There is one generation per year. The preferred hosts for this species are fruit trees, including cherry, peach, and plum. Adults are often found around buildings.

Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Adults are about 6 mm long and yellowish green to dull green. Elytra have a black stripe along the sides, and a small dark spot at the base. Full-grown larvae are about 12 mm long; head, legs, and tubercles are black, and there is a broad yellow stripe in the middle of the dorsum. Pupae are bright orange-yellow and with scattered black setae. Eggs are laid in clusters of 15-20

in the soil at the base of trees or on the trunk near the base; fecundity is 400-800 eggs. Hatching occurs in about 2 weeks. Early-stage larvae climb the tree trunk and move out to the branches where they feed on the underside of the leaves. Full-grown larvae crawl into openings in the trunk of the tree, in limb crotches, or move down the tree trunk to pupate in the bark near the ground or the soil around the tree. Larval development takes 2-3 weeks; there are usually two complete generations per year, and a partial third generation in some regions. The first generation is the largest and does the most damage to the tree. Second-generation adults select hibernation sites in late summer or early fall. Overwintering locations include leaf litter around the foundations of buildings, and in the attics, eaves, and interior rooms ofhouses. Adults usually remain active during the winter, but do not feed. They leave overwintering sites with increasing day length in early spring; they feed between the veins of developing leaves in the spring. Egg-laying begins about 1 month after adult emergence, and when the buds on elm trees in the region begin to unfold. Elm trees close to buildings are the primary source of overwintering aggregations. This species occurs in Europe, North America, and the Middle East (Iran), and hosts include all species of elms (Ulmus), including American, Chinese, and European elm. Shade trees are often defoliated by large numbers of larvae; trees growing in forests are usually not seriously infested.

There are native and introduced parasites and pathogens of the pupae of the elm leaf beetle. Species of eulophid wasps, Oomyzus, provide limited control in some regions. The eulophid, Aprostocetus brevistigmata,isaninternal parasite of the pupae. The tachinid fly, Erynniopis antennata,isan internal larval parasite that emerges from the elm leaf beetle pupa or adult.

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