Colored cabinet beetle Trogoderma glabrum Fig 511a

adult is 2-4 mm long, with dorsal setae that are brown, white, and golden; the wings are brown. Males have a five-to seven-segmented antennal club, and females have a four-segmented club. Eggs are deposited singly; hatching occurs in 4 days at 38 °C and in 12 days at 21 °C. Larval development is 24 days at 32 °C, 75-85 days at 25 °C, and 146 days at 22 °C. At 65-70% RH, development from egg to adult on wholewheat flour is 140 days at 21 °C, 50 days at 27 °C, 41 days at 32 °C, and 45 days at38 °C. The pupal period is about 6 days, and the adults live 4-10 days. There are one or two generations per year. This species infests plant and animal material, but develops best on animal feeds, rolled barley, rice and rice flour, cottonseed meal, wheat, shelled corn, and poultry mash. Outdoors it occurs in sparrow's nests, and wasp and bee nests where the larvae feed on dead insects. It occurs in North America, Mexico, Europe, Caucasus, Kazakhstan, and Siberia; itis imported into the UK.

Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Adults are 1.8-3 .8 mm long. Elytra are yellowish brown to reddish brown, and have a brown and yellow color pattern. The pronotum is usually darker than the elytra, and the dorsal setae are pale yellow. Males have a dense fringe of setae on the apical margin of the last visible abdominal sternum; females lack this fringe of setae. Full-grown larvae are about 6 mm long, brown to yellowish brown. Eggs are laid singly on the surface or in crevices of the food. Hatching occurs in 4 days at 40 °C, 10 days at 25 °C; eggs hatch at all temperatures between 25-40 °C and 50-73% RH. Females, mated once, lay their full potential of eggs. Larval development is through four or five instars at 35 °C and 50% RH, 5-8 instars atlower temperatures; optimal conditions for larval development are 35 °Cat50-73% RH. Third-stage larvae can penetrate sound grain, and they feed on the germ and endosperm. Larvae are unable to penetrate undamaged pulses, but they will develop on bean flour. Full-grown larvae enter a form of diapause in which they continue to feed and molt, butdo not pupate. They may remain in this state for as long as 6 years when food is present. Diapausing larvae often remain inactive in crevices away from food. This diapause is different from retrogressive molting, which is induced by lack of food. The incidence of diapause is influenced by the combined effects of crowding and exposure to temperatures of 30 °C or less. Pupal development requires about 3 days at 40 °C, and about 6 days at 25 °C. Adult beetles are short-lived, and apparently do not feed.

This species is a pest of stored grain, and is found in regions of the world with at least 4 months with temperatures above 20 °C and 50% RH. Itprefers wholegrain and cereal products, but it will also feed on dried blood, dried milk, and fishmeal. The common name, khapra, describes its habit in India, which is occupying pores in bricks used to make grain storage buildings. This species is indigenous to India and Sri Lanka, but has spread throughout the world by grain commerce. It does not occur in the USA, Mexico, Ethiopia, South Africa, Russia, Malaysia, New Guinea, and Micronesia. In the UK it is only in heated conditions.

Large cabinet beetle, mottled dermestid, Trogoderma inclu-sum (= T. versicolor) (Fig. 5.11c) Adults are 2-5 mm long. Elytra are bicolored brown. Eyes have the medial margin distinctly notched. For other pest species of the genus the medial margin of the eye is entire or only slightly notched. Eggs are deposited directly on food source; hatching occurs in 4 days at 40 °C and 20 days at 20 °C. Larval development is optimal at 30-35 °C and 50-73% RH; there are four or five molts. Larvae do not complete development at 15 °C. Larvae can live 511 days at 50% RH, and they can survive for 6 days at 45-50 °C and 20-30% RH. Adult males at 73% RH live 10 days at 40 °C, and 38 days at 20 ° C; mated females live 8-38 days. Adult life span at any temperature decreases with humidity. This species occurs in North America, the UK, continental Europe, the Mediterranean region, Egypt, India, and Russia. It is a pest of agricultural products, rice, rice bran, soybean meal, cottonseed, carobs, nuts, processed foods, dried milk, dried fruit, animal feeds, and animal detritus, such as dead insects. Outdoors it feeds on dead insects in beetle galleries and bee nests.

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