Heteronemiidae

Species in this family are long and slender and the most sticklike of all the walkingsticks. They have five-segmented tarsi, a mesothorax that is at least four times as long as the prothorax, and they are wingless. This family contains the longest insect in the USA, Megaphasma denticrus, which is 15-18 cm long. It occurs in southwestern states.

Common walkingstick, Diapheromera femorata Adults are 62-90 mm long. The body is brown to green, but may be mottled with gray, green, and red. First-stage nymphs are about 8 mm long and pale green. The egg is about 2 mm long, oval and shiny black or brown, and has a broad white or light green band. Winter is spent in the egg stage and hatching occurs in May and June; early-stage nymphs feed on ground vegetation, such as strawberry, blueberry, and Juneberry. Late-stage nymphs feed on tree leaves. Adults emerge in July and August and lay eggs until frost. In southern regions, eggs hatch the following spring; in northern regions eggs hatch the second spring following their deposition. This species occurs in southern Canada and throughout eastern USA. Itis sometimes abundant and can defoliate trees, especially black oak, elm, black locust, wild cherry, and sometimes dogwood. They may occur in woodlots and residential areas. Other related species include Diapheromera velii and D. blatchleyi. Adults and nymphs of these species feed on grasses and tall shrubs.

Prickly stick insect, Acanthoxyla prasina The adult female is about 81 mm long. The body is greenish brown with spines on the head and thorax, and usually on the basal part of the abdomen. Cerci are large, flattened, and rounded at the tip. Eggs develop without fertilization, and males are unknown. This species is native to New Zealand, but was introduced into the UK on plants. It is known to occur in residential gardens and on ornamental plants. Closely related species, A. geisovii and A. inermis, are native to New Zealand, but populations are known from the Scilly Islands, UK.

Smooth stick insect, Clitarchus hookeri The adult female is about 86 mm long. The body is pale green to greenish brown. Cerci are large, flattened, and pointed at the tip. The thorax is black, with a longitudinal line along the middle of the dorsal surface. Eggs develop without fertilization in some regions. This species is native to New Zealand, but has been introduced to the UK. It occurs in cultivated gardens.

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