Household fungus beetle Adistemia watsoni Fig 512b

Adults are about 1.5 mm long and brown to dark brown. Coxae 1 and 2 are contiguous, and abdominal segment 1 is fused to the metasternum between the hind legs. Eggs are laid singly on the fungus substrate; however, oviposition does not occur under conditions of high humidity. Hatching occurs in about 6 days. Larvae remain in food source and migration is limited when food is plentiful. Larval development is about 13 days, and mortality increases with high humidity. Prior to pupation, last-stage larvae attach to the substrate; the pupal period is

Dienerella Ruficollis
Figure 5.12 Coleoptera: Lathridiidae. (a) Aridus nodifer; (b) Adistemia watsoni; (c) Cartodere constricta; (d) Dienerella arga; (e) D. costulata; (f) D. filiformis; (g) D. filum; (h) D. ruficollis; (i) Lathridus minutus; (j) L. protensi-collis.

about 10 days. Development from egg to adult is 21-35 days at 25 °C. Adult mortality is 4% at 32 °C for 7 days; at 38 °C about 98% die within 7 days, and at 43 °C mortality is 100% within 24 h. Time for 100% mortality at 54 °C is 10 min, at 60 °C5 min, and at 65 °C the time for 100% mortality is 4 min. Larvae and adults are negatively phototropic; adults have not been observed to fly. This species is distributed in North and South America, Europe, Canary Islands, Madeira, and Africa. It is a common household pest, and it is known to infest a variety of moldy materials, and to occur in outdoor populations (decaying potatoes).

Swollen fungus beetle, Aridus nodifer (Fig. 5.12a) Adults are 1.5-2.1 mm long and dark brown. Legs are pale brown to yellowish brown; the antennal club is three-segmented. Elytra have a very large and longitudinal swelling on the apical third; the male has a large tooth near the inner apex of hind tibia. Full-grown larvae are about 2 mm long, pale yellow, and with numerous long, recurved setae. Eggs hatch in 5-7 days; larval development is 20-28 days, and the pupal period is 3-4 days. This species occurs indoors and is cosmopolitan.

Plaster beetle, Cartodere constricta (Fig. 5.12c) Adults are 1.2-1.7 mm long and brown. The antennal club is two-segmented, and the pronotum is distinctly constricted. Full-grown larvae are about 2 mm long, pale yellow, and with a dark brown head. Eggs are laid singly, and hatching occurs in about 3 days. Larval development at 25 °C is 4-7 days, and the pupal period is 1-5 days. Larvae and adults are negatively phototropic, and when food is scarce or disturbed, the adults and larvae will disperse. Adults are capable of flight. This species is usually associated with infested grain and stored-food products; ithas a cosmopolitan distribution.

Dienerellaarga (= Microgramme) (Fig. 5.i2d) Adults are about 1.4 mm long and the body is brown. The posterodorsal surface of the head has a triangular depressed area. The antennal club is three-segmented. Eggs are laid singly or in small batches; hatching occurs in about 5.5 days. Larval developmentis complete in about 13 days, and the pupal period lasts about 10 days. This species occurs in North America, Europe, and North Africa.

Dienerella filiformis (= Microgramme) (Fig. 5.i2f) Adults are 1.2-1.4 mm long, and the antennal club is three-segmented and slightly enlarged. This species is distributed in the USA, Europe, Russia, and Japan. This species occurs indoors. A closely related species, D. costulata (Fig. 5.i2e), has a broad pronotum and the three-segmented antennal club is slender. This species is distributed in North America, Europe, and Japan.

Common plaster beetle, Dienerella filum (= Microgramme) (Fig. 5.12g) Adults are 1.2-1.6 mm long and brown. The antennal club is two-segmented. The anterior half of the prono-tal disk has a broad, moderately deep, oval depression; the head has a median suture. Other Dienerella (Microgramme)specieshave a three-segmented antennal club. Hind wings are lacking and adults do notfly. Full-grown larvae are 1.7-2 mm long and pale white. Pupae are about 1 mm long and yellowish white. Eggs are laid singly on the substrate; fecundity is about 20 eggs. Development is 36 days at 24 °C and 54 days at 18 °C; at lower temperatures, development takes as long as 5 months. The life cycle is completed in about 2i days at 24 °C. This species is the most common of the house-infesting lathridiids, and it is nearly cosmopolitan. They occur in damp, moldy warehouses and cellars, in areas near water pipes, around leaky windows, under moldy wallpaper, in moldy cereals, and moldy bread. They are known as plaster beetles because they occur in new or remodeled buildings that have recently been plastered. Adults cannot crawl on smooth or vertical surfaces, and they are often trapped in sinks and tubs. Adults appear 3-4 months or, rarely, 1 year after walls have been plastered. Moisture from plaster and warmth favors growth of molds, which is the primary food for these beetles. Plastered walls can support an infestation if wallpaper is applied soon after construction.

Dienerella ruficollis (= Microgramme) (Fig. 5.i2h) Adults are about 1.5 mm long. The antennal club is three-segmented; the margin of the pronotum is constricted anteriorly and posteriorly. This species occurs indoors and outdoors, and it is distributed in North and Central America, Europe, North Africa, and New Zealand.

Minute fungus beetle, square-nosed fungus beetle, Lathridus minutus (= Enicmus) (Fig. 5.12i) Adults are 1.2-2.4 mm long and pale reddish brown to black; when black, the antennae and legs are reddish brown. The antennal club is three-segmented; elytra are rounded at the apex. Full-grown larvae are about 2.2 mm long, pale yellow, and have moderately sparse setae. The pupa is about 1.5 mm long. Eggs are laid singly, and at 18 °C hatching occurs in 5-6 days. The first two larval stages last4-5 days at 18 °C; third-stage larvae feed for 3-4 days then wander for 2-3 days before pupating. The pupal period is 6-7 days, but may be 14-15 days. This species occurs indoors and is widely distributed.

Other Lathridiidae Numerous species of fungus beetles have been collected in buildings. In the UK and continental Europe, Thes bergrothi is a common species; it is 1.8-2.2 mm long and reddish brown. In northwestern USA, Lathridus protensicollis (Fig. 5.i2j), is found indoors and outdoors.

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