In this order, the millipedes are small and cylindrical, and both pairs oflegs on segment 7 of the male are modified as copula-tory organs (gonopods). The first and sometimes the second pair oflegs in the male may be modified to form secondary sexual structures. There are many species in Europe and western Asia, and several species have been introduced into North America. In the family Julidae, the male's first pair oflegs is hooked. Several families in this order have species that occur in large numbers in or near urban environments. Uroblaniu-lusjerseyi is common in urban and natural habitats in eastern USA, and enters buildings in large numbers in fall. Two common species that enter buildings in eastern USA are Oriulus venustus (= Prajulus) and O. impressus (= Prajulus). They commonly occur in large numbers around the perimeter and inside ofbuildings.

Portuguese millipede, Archiulus moreleti (= ommatoiulus)

Adults are small and uniformly dark brown. This species is native to the Iberian peninsula, but has been introduced to other parts of the world. It is a pest in Australia and South Africa. In Australia it occurs in peridomestic habitats, where it destroys ornamental plants and vegetables, but it also enters structures. It is a problem during summer and early fall, which is the breeding season for this millipede. Invasion of structures also occurs in the spring, following rainfall. This species is attracted to lights atnightand itenters buildings under doors and around windows.

Brachyiulus lusitanus Adults have more than 30 body segments, and the body is long and slender. The head is without a distinct midfacial suture. Males lack short coxal lobes on the anterior legs. The dorsum has a broad, yellow, longitudinal stripe, which contains a medial black stripe. This millipede occurs under logs, rocks, and stones in urban gardens. This species is native to Europe, buthas been introduced into northeastern North America. It is established in eastern USA and eastern Canada. In the USA, it is known from North Carolina and California (Contra Costa county). It is also known from urban areas in Mexico. A morphologically similar species, B. pusillus, was introduced to eastern North America from Europe.

ophyiuluspilosus Adults are about4.5 cm long. The body has more than 30 segments and there are fine but distinct longitudinal striations on the segments. The dorsum is uniformly brown to grayish black, not striped. This species is common in urban habitats in Europe and eastern North America.

Brown millipede, Paraiulus venustus Adults are 25-40 mm long and about 8 mm in diameter; the body is uniformly brown. This species, and P. impressus, occurs around the perimeter and inside ofbuildings and other urban structures. Itis distributed in eastern USA.

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