Merchant grain beetle Oryzaephilus mercator Fig 56e

Adults are 2.2-3.1 mm long. The body is reddish brown to dark brown; the pronotum has six large projections or teeth on lateral margin. It closely resembles O. surinamensis, and the two were once considered synonymous. O. mercator is distinguished from O. surinamensis by having the vertical diameter of the eye larger than the region of the head directly behind the eye, and it has a triangular-shaped head. Eggs are laid singly on food material, and hatching is in 3-5 days. Fecundity is 20-90 eggs. Larvae complete development in about 25 days at 32.5 °C, and about i00 days at 20 °C; development is optimum between 30 and 32.5 °C, and only a few larvae complete development at 17.5 °C. The generic name Oryzaephilus means rice-loving, but the merchant grain beetle is usually associated with oilseeds and less with cereal grains. It is nearly cosmopolitan and in most regions O. mercator is a pest ofprocessed cereals, especially those with a high oil content. It also feeds on seed-borne fungi.

Other Cucujidae Silvanus planatus (Fig. 5.6f) infests stored maize and is distributed in North America. Adults are 2.7-2.9 mm long and brown to dark brown. This species is distinguished by the pronotum, which is strongly narrowed posteriorly, with the lateral edges serrate, and with a tooth at the anterior corners.

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