New Zealand wood weevil Euophryum confine Fig 57b

Adults are about 3 mm long and reddish brown to blackish brown. Exit holes are about 1.5 mm diameter, and have a jagged edge. Frass is similar to that produced by anobiid beetles, but the pieces are less rounded and not powdery as in lyctids. This species is common in woodlands where it is found in standing trees and fallen logs. It is native to New Zealand but it has become established in the UK. E. confine is a secondary pest of building timbers since it is found exclusively in timbers undergoing fungal decay. As wood dries the surface hardness of the substrate increases and inhibits weevil tunneling and survival. Dispersal flight is limited by conditions of less than 30% RH and 20 ° C. Softwood and hardwood species are vulnerable to attack, although mostinfestations are in Scots pine (Pinussylvestris), Coniophora puteana (cellar rot), Ser-pula lacrymans (dry rot), and Antroáia (Fibroporia) vaillantii (white rot). All three species of fungi, which damage both softwoods and hardwoods, are found in association with E. confine. The mechanism by which adultweevils detectwood ofsuitable condition for oviposition and infestation is the odor plumes from fungi when wood decays.

Eastern wood weevil, Hexarthrum ulkei Adults are 2.5-3 mm long, shiny brownish red to black, and subcylindrical. The snout is slightly longer than the head, the antennae are 10-segmented, and the pronotum is coarsely punctate. Elytra punctures are in distinct rows. This species is distributed in southeastern Canada, eastern USA west to Indiana, and in Idaho.

Egyptian alfalfa weevil, Hypera brunneipennis Adults are about 5 mm long. The body is grayish brown to black, and covered with short gray setae. The snout is long and slender and distinctly bends downward. This species is a pestin alfalfa and clover. When populations become large in agricultural fields the adults migrate to the margins and often move into buildings.

Tulip tree weevil, odontopus calceatus Adults are 2.5-4 mm long and black; the front legs are strongly incurved. Eggs are laid in the midrib on the underside of leaves in May and June. The midrib usually breaks at the oviposition site. Larvae bore into the leaf and mine the interior. Pupation occurs in spherical silken cocoons in enlarged portions of the mine. Newly emerged adults feed on the surrounding foliage. Adults stop feeding by mid-July, and are inactive until the following spring. They spend the winter in leaf litter on the ground, and occasionally enter houses at this time. Adults emerge in the spring when the leaf buds begin to swell. Adults and larvae feed on leaves of magnolia, sassafras, and tulip poplar trees. They are common in July and August and are attracted to lights in buildings. Distribution of this species is eastern USA.

Black vine weevil, Otiorhynchussulcatus Adults are 9-12 mm long and blackish brown. The thorax is covered with tubercles, and the elytra are often speckled with white. The hind wings are reduced to pads, and these beetles do notfly. Eggs are laid in the ground, under loose bark, or among leaves of their host tree. Larvae enter the soil and feed on the roots of various plants. Pupation occurs in cells formed near the surface of the ground. Winter is spent as larvae or pupae, and sometimes as adults, at 15-25 cm in the soil. Adults emerge from May to July, and are present during the remainder of the warm season. They feed at night on plant and tree leaves. Adults are attracted to lights at night, and often enter buildings through windows and doors. This species invades houses and itis common in northern USA. It feeds on a variety of plants and trees, including alfalfa, and red, white, and pin oaks.

Strawberry root weevil, Otiorhynchus ovatus Adults are 5.06.5 mm long, dark brown to blackish brown, and have a short and wide snout. The adults do not fly. The larvae feed on plant roots. When populations peak during spring and fall, adults will enter houses and other buildings. They are attracted to indoor sites where water is available. Closely related species, O. sulcatus, and O. rugostriatus, also occur indoors. These short-nosed weevils are distributed in the UK, and they can be present in large numbers in gardens and around the perimeter of houses and other buildings, and sometimes move inside.

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