Oecophoridae

Adults have a wing span of about 20 mm, and many species are brightly colored or have patterned wings. Caterpillars are also marked with white or yellow bands, and most feed on plants, usually on exposed blossoms, leaves, or stems, or in folded or rolled leaves. The species that are household pests of stored food are scavengers as caterpillars, and have adapted to the food debris indoors. Barea species feed on fungi in decaying wood.

Decay moths, Barea spp. Adults are about 23 mm long and gray. Full-grown caterpillars are about30 mm long, pale yellow, and have dark gray markings at the end of the abdomen. Caterpillars remain on the surface of decaying wood in silk retreats covered with feces. Caterpillars feed on the fungi in decaying wood.

White-shouldered house moth, Endrosissarcitrella (Fig. 11.2c)

Adult males are about 6 mm long and females are about 11 mm long. The prothorax and base of the wings are white, the fore wings are grayish white and marked with dark patches, while the hind wings are narrowed apically. Full-grown caterpillars are about 12 mm long, pale yellow to white, and have a brown head. Eggs are deposited deep into crevices by the long female ovipositor; hatching occurs in 42 days atio °C, 15 days at 15 °C, and 6-7 days at25 °C. Developmentrequires a minimum of8o%RH, and is 10-iiweeks ati5 °C, and5-6weeks at25 ° C. The pupal stage lasts 25 days at 15 °C, and 10-11 days at 25 °C. Development continues throughout winter in sheltered locations; there is no record of diapause in this species. Under favorable conditions, 2-4 generations are completed per year. Adults emerge in early spring, and the sex ratio may be 23:1 in favor of females. Caterpillars feed on a variety of plant material, including bird nests and thatched roofs, fungi on trees, corks in wine cellars, and dry seeds and vegetables, broken grain, such as maize and wheat, meal and flour. This species is cosmopolitan, but it is more common in temperate regions.

Brown house moth, Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Fig.

11.2b)Adult females are about 14 mm long and have a wing span of 18-25 mm; males are about 8 mm long and have a wing span of 17-19 mm. The body is bronze brown; the dark brown front wings have distinct black spots. Males fly more than do the females, who tend to seek a harborage when disturbed. Full-grown caterpillars are about 6 mm long, yellowish white, and with a light brown head. Eggs are laid singly or in small groups; fecundity is 400-500 eggs. Hatching is in 25 days at 15 °C and 10 days at 25 °C. Development is 70-80 days at 20-25 °C and 70-90% RH, but may be over 180 days at 10 °C. The immature stages produce only a little silk while feeding. Caterpillars prefer high humidity for development, and enter diapause when conditions are not suitable. The caterpillar overwinters in diapause, and in spring spins a cocoon thathas attached to it debris from the feeding substrate. The pupal period lasts about 14 days at 10 °C, 7 weeks at 15 °C, and 15 days at 25 °C. Generally, there is one generation per year. This species is more common in households than in commercial storage facilities, and it infests dried and decaying organic matter in cool habitats. In food-processing plants it attacks bulk wheat and flour. In domestichabitats it damages wine bottle corks, book bindings, skins, and furs. Caterpillars are capable of digesting keratin, and feed on animal products. In house attics and roofspaces the caterpillars feed on animal droppings, dried corpses, and other organic material. This species is cosmopolitan but most abundant in temperate regions.

Other Oecophoridae Other species recorded in stored foods include: Anchonoma xeraula, grain moth, which occurs in grain storage facilities in Japan; and Promalactis inonisema, which occurs in stored cotton seed in Japan.

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