Other ambrosia beetles Monarthrum fasciatum M mali

Adults are 2.5-3 mm long; M. fasciatum have yellow bands across the elytra, M. mali are uniformly brown. These species develop in recently cut logs and lumber of practically all hardwoods throughout eastern USA.

Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Adults are 1.6-2.5 mm long and dark brown to blackish brown; the body is setose. Eggs are laid in tunnels gnawed by the female in ripening coffee berries on the bush; females oviposit up to 20 eggs in one berry. Larvae complete development and pupate in the berry after drying and in the produce store. Adults are found in the productor atvarious locations in the store. This species also attacks beans. A related species, H. liberiensis, attacks maize in Nigeria, Africa.

Ash bark beetles, Lepersinus aculeatus, L. fraxini Adults are 2-3 mm long and have variegated markings. Adults differ from most other bark beetles by having a pattern of colors, which are produced by bands or spots of light-colored scales alternating with areas of dark scales. The antennal club is elongate and slightly compressed. Winter is spent in the adult stage in tunnels in the bark of living or felled trees or logs. Adults emerge in the spring to construct galleries between the bark and wood of host trees. Larvae feed in tunnels built away from the main gallery; pupation is in oval cells between the bark and wood. There are one or two generations per year. Adults of L.fraxini are common indoors in northern Europe (Denmark) in August and September, when ash firewood is brought indoors.

Eastern juniper bark beetle, Phloeosinus dentatus Adults are 2.2-2.8 mm long, brown to blackish brown, and covered with short, gray setae. Eggs are laid in short galleries that extend upward from the entrance hole. Larvae mine for a short distance across the grain, then mine upward with the wood grain. Infestations are usually found in saw logs or damage trees. This species attacks living red cedars infested with the root rot fungus, Fomes annosus. The most common host for this bark beetle is eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), but it also attacks arborvitae and Atlantic white cedar. It is distributed in eastern USA, and west to Texas. Adults may emerge from structural logs in modern log houses in northeastern USA.

Other Phloeosinus Other juniper bark beetles include P. tax-odii, the southern cypress beetle; P. canadensis, which also attacks eastern red cedar and arbovitae; P. pini, which attacks various pines; and P. texanus, which attacks Mexican juniper.

Striped ambrosia beetle, Trypodendron lineatum Adults are 3.0-3.5 mm long, and brown to black. The prothorax is reddish brown; the antennae are yellowish brown and with a large club. Elytra have several rows of punctures and range in color from completely black to yellowish brown. This species is widely distributed in North America, and it attacks recently felled logs of nearly all the coniferous trees. The galleries penetrate the sapwood and heartwood and have several branches.

Fruit tree bark beetle, shot hole borer, Scolytus rugulosus Adults are 2-3 mm long and blackish brown. Antennae, legs, and ends of the elytra are dark red to reddish brown. Full-grown larvae are about3 mm long, yellowish white, and legless. Adults emerge in spring, and after mating, females bore round holes, about 1.3 mm diameter, through the bark of trees. They usually infest injured, dying, or dead wood. Eggs are deposited along main galleries in the wood below the bark. Development takes about 23 days and larvae excavate galleries at right angles to the main gallery in the cambium; pupation occurs at the end of the larval gallery. There are two or three generations per year, and larvae and pupae overwinter. Trees attacked include ash, elm, hawthorn, cherry, apple, peach, pear, and others. This species is native to Europe, but occurs throughout the USA. It commonly infests firewood logs, and adults are often found at windows during winter.

Lesser shot hole borer, Xyleborus saxeseni Adults are 2.3-3.5 mm long and yellowish brown to black. It lives in a wide variety of trees, including species of hardwoods and pine. Entry and exit holes are 1-3 mm diameter, and extend horizontally to the sapwood and end in a leaf-shaped cavity in which the ambrosia fungus grows. In fresh timber, the fibrous frass is compacted into short tubes, and these extend out of the entry hole. Xyleborus is represented by several species found in North America, Europe, and Asia. Many infest both coniferous and deciduous trees; dying, unhealthy, and felled trees are usually attacked.

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