Pest dispersal and distribution

International transportation, economic exchange, and globalization have brought a degree of uniformity to the urban area around the world, and increased the movement and exchange ofarthropods. The majority of household and stored-food pests, including fruit flies, cockroaches, flour beetles, moths, and mites, have moved with infested commercial goods and now have cosmopolitan distribution. Peridomes-tic mosquitoes, subterranean termites, and wood-infesting beetles share the same potential for widespread distribution. Current distribution records for many household and structural pests are subject to change with increased movement of people and materials around the world.

Informationonpestidentification, biology, andhabits, compiled on an international basis, is appropriate for the urban environment. A global census indicates thatnearly 2300 insects and other arthropods have some level of pest status around the world. Some are only occasional invaders of houses and other buildings, some are closely associated with the foods, fabrics, and other aspects ofdwellings, and others are linked to plants and animals in domestic and peridomestic habitats. Many of these species are capable of adapting to the soil conditions, climate, and building construction in other regions of the world, and becoming established in pest populations. Regional conditions may alter some behaviors, but morphological features and the basic life cycle will remain unchanged, and control strategies are usually transferable from region to region.

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