Platypodidae

Platypodids are known as pinhole borers or flatfooted ambrosia beetles. Adults are 2-8 mm long and brown to brownish black. The body is cylindrical and with the head slightly wider than the pronotum. Tarsi are very slender, with the first segment longer than the remaining segments combined; in scolytids the first tarsal segment is shorter than the remaining segments. Platypodids lack a spine or projection at the apex of the front tibia that is present in the scolytids. Tunnels made in wood by the adults are extensive, and they usually extend deep into the sapwood and hardwood. Females often die at the entrance to the system of galleries they have cut for the larvae, and their body protects developing larvae from predators and water loss (to maintain fungal growth). Weakened or recently felled trees are preferred for attack. Larval food and developmentare similar to scolytid beetles. Adult platypodids cut a new tunnel to the surface of the wood when emerging, and they leave behind a small amount of powdery frass. There are two or three generations per year for most species. They are common in tropical and subtropical regions; only species in the genus Platypus occur in North America.

Asian pinhole borer, Platypus parallelus Adults are 3.84.5 mm long and yellowish brown to brown. Elytra are dark brown at the apex in both males and females. Holes in the wood are about 1 mm diameter and they are usually stained black. The male makes a short tunnel in the bark of the tree or log, and then releases a pheromone to attract a female. Mating occurs on the surface, and then the female enters the tunnel and excavates the main gallery for the larvae. Frass is often extruded from the entry hole in long, compact strings; galleries are stained black by the fungal growth. Eggs are laid along the main gallery and larvae feed on the fungal mycelium that grows in the gallery system. Newly emerged adults exit the wood through the original entry hole. Peak emergence is in April in Malaysia, and there is apparently one generation per year. This species occurs in southern Asia, including Malaysia. The unseasoned hardwoods and softwood with amoisture content of about 40% that are susceptible to attack include Cyno-metra spp. (kekatong), Gonystylus spp. (ramin), Hevea brasiliensis (rubberwood), Koompassia malaccensis (kempas), Myristica spp.

(penarahan), Pinus spp. (pine), Shorea rugosa (meranti bakau), and Sindora spp. (sepetir).

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