Psorophora ciliata Fig 74a Adult wing span is 89 mm and

the body is dark brown to black. The head and thorax have patches of white and yellow scales. The abdomen has patches of purplish blue, iridescent scales. The proboscis and tarsi are banded white. Larvae breed in rain pools and other temporary standing water. Full-grown larvae are 10-12 mm long, but occasionally 15 mm long. The body is pale gray and the thorax is nearly as long as broad; the abdominal segments 1-7 are large and with small tufts of setae set in small depressions. The anal siphon is large and broad at the base. Larvae are predators on aquatic invertebrates and other mosquitoes, including other P. ciliata, in the habitat. First-stage larvae do not feed. Eggs are deposited on moist soil in woodlands and meadows; eggs are laid in small batches of 6-8. Hatching is in about 5 days, but in general hatching occurs when dried sites are flooded. Development takes 4-10 days; the pupal period is 1-3 days. Females feed outdoors and generally do not enter structures or barns. This species occurs in transient pools, ditches, and agricultural fields in eastern and southeastern USA, and its range extends to Canada and South America. It is a severe biter and capable of penetrating several layers of clothing with its proboscis. Gallinipper is a common name for this mosquito.

Psorophora confinis Adults have the proboscis, tarsi, and abdomen with white bands; abdominal bands are triangular. Eggs are laid on soil or vegetation above the existing water line and they are able to withstand a long period of desiccation. Hatching occurs in 4-5 days when submerged soon after deposition, after being on the surface for weeks; hatching occurs within minutes after submergence. Development in summer may last 4 days, and the pupal period lasts 1-2 days. Adults live for 1-2 months, and they have a flightrange of about 16 km. Temporary pools can produce large numbers of adults in a short period, and breeding occurs in agricultural fields. The common names rice-field mosquito and glades mosquito have been used for this species. The adults have a painful bite, and feed during the day and night; adults are attracted to lights at night. This species is widely distributed in the USA, and its range extends to Central and South America.

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