Bagworm males have a wingspan of4-60 mm, and are generally mottled brown and black; females of most species are wingless and resemble fly larvae (larviform). The caterpillar forms a portable case made of pieces of twigs and leaves of their host, and they carry the case as they feed on the leaves and needles of hardwood and coniferous trees. Many bagworms occur in the tropics, especially the large species, and someshowapref-erence for palms as hosts. Infestations are sometimes large enough to defoliate the tree. Pests in Asia include species of Acanthopsyche, which attacks Acacia and Pinus in East Africa and India, and species of Delonix in Africa and Asia. Caterpillars of Clania and Cryptothelea are polyphagous and infest trees in Africa and Asia.

Abbots bagworm, Oiketicus abbotti Male wing span is about 20 mm. Wings are dark and the front wing has a narrow, irregular, white subapical band. Caterpillars place short twigs and leaves on the bag. This species has been recorded from southeastern USA (Florida).

Bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Male wing span is about 25 mm. The wings are transparent and dusky, and the body is dark brown to black. Full-grown caterpillars are about 30 mm long and dark yellow to light brown; the anterior end is more pigmented than the posterior. The head, thorax, and anal plate have scattered dark-brown spots. The cuticle of abdominal segments is transversely wrinkled. Caterpillars attack evergreen and deciduous trees, and the most commonly infested trees arefirs, juniper, pines, spruce, maple, sweet gum, and sycamore. Caterpillars complete their development in fall and leave the host tree or shrub and seek a place to pupate. They often move to the perimeter ofhouses and buildings, and attach their cocoons on sidings. They pupate in the case; males leave the case after development, but the larviform females remain in the case. In fall, females extend their abdomens to the outside of the bag and males are capable of mating. Eggs are laid inside the bag and hatch the following spring. First-stage caterpillars leave the bag and move out on to leaves to feed and form their own bag. This species probably originated in the West Indies, and is distributed in eastern and southeastern USA.

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