Rhaphidophoridae

These are wingless grasshoppers. Adults and nymphs are brown to dark gray, but may be mottled brown and black. The antennae are usually much longer than the body, and the hind legs are large; they are primarily terrestrial. The members of this family are nocturnal, and they are predominantly carnivorous. The peridomestic species with pest status include cave crickets and camel crickets.

Cave crickets, camel crickets, stone crickets, Ceuthophilus maculatus, C. pallidus, C. californicus, and C. pacificus (Fig. 13.1d) Adults are 13-39 mm long and wingless. The body is light brown to dark brown, and many species have a mottled color pattern on the thorax, abdomen, and legs. Antennae are threadlike and longer than the body. Hind legs are long, and the femora are enlarged. Nymphs have a color pattern similar to the adults; the immature females lack an ovipositor. Camel crickets do not chirp.

Common names applied to these insects refer to their habits: cave cricket because they are found in dark habitats, camel cricket because of the high arched thorax of some species, and stone cricket for their habit of finding harborage under stones (ceutho = Greek, concealed). C. pallidus is widely distributed in North America, from southern Canada to Texas and northern Mexico. It has been reported eating fabric indoors. The spotted camel cricket C. maculatus was reported feeding on clothing hanging outdoors, at elevations of 2000-3000 m in New Mexico.

Diestrammena japonica, D. apicalis Adults are 20-25 mm long and wingless. The body of D.japonica is yellowish brown with black spotted markings, while the body ofD. apicalis is dark brown without black markings. These two species are found in domestic and peridomestic habitats throughout Japan and Taiwan.

New Zealand cave crickets, Pachyrhamma fascifer, P. acanthocera Adults are 44-50 mm long, excluding the antennae, which are extremely long (in P. acanthocera more than 550 segments). They occur in tunnels and other dark and moist peridomestic locations.

Greenhouse stone cricket, greenhouse camel cricket, Tachycines asynamorus Adult males are 11.3-11.9 mm long, while adult females are 12.5-14.6 mm long. The body is pale to dark brown; the legs are banded pale and dark brown. Eggs are laid singly or in groups of 50, and fecundity is about 1000 eggs. Hatching depends on temperature but is usually in 2-4 months. First-stage nymphs are about 3 mm long. Development takes 4-7 months through about 11 stages. Nymphs and adults prefer to eat animal material, and it will kill and eat other insects and small animals. It has been reported to move into buildings through sewer pipes. This species occurs in Asia. It is found in greenhouses, basements, and warm garages in other regions, including the USA and the UK.

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