Salticidae

These are the jumping spiders. They have a short body and stout legs with two tarsal claws. The eyes extend the entire length of the head region of the cephalothorax, and these spiders appear to have excellent vision. They use their eyes to hunt

Figure 18.8 Arthropoda: Aranea. (a) Plectreurys tristis; (b) Plexippus paykulli male; (c) P. paykulli female; (d) Latrodectus mactans female, thorax and abdomen of female; (e) L. mactans female, cephalothorax and abdomen venter; (f) Salticus scenicus; (g) Scytodes thoracica; (h) Marpissa undata; (i) Theridion rupicola; (j) Achaearanea tepidariorum female; (k) Teutana triangulosa; (l) Steatoda borealis female.

Figure 18.8 Arthropoda: Aranea. (a) Plectreurys tristis; (b) Plexippus paykulli male; (c) P. paykulli female; (d) Latrodectus mactans female, thorax and abdomen of female; (e) L. mactans female, cephalothorax and abdomen venter; (f) Salticus scenicus; (g) Scytodes thoracica; (h) Marpissa undata; (i) Theridion rupicola; (j) Achaearanea tepidariorum female; (k) Teutana triangulosa; (l) Steatoda borealis female.

capture it. Before jumping, the frontlegs are extended forward to grasp the prey, and an anchor line of silk is secured to the substrate. There are several species that occur in peridomestic habitats, including Hasarius adamsoni and Mtnemerus bivittatus in Brazil.

during the day, and they are common in sunny areas. Crawling on walls and ceiling is assisted by means of an adhesive tuft of setae, the scopula, on each of the tarsi. As the spider moves over surfaces it trails behind it a fine thread of silk, which is attached at frequent intervals so that it does not fall far if it slips from the surface. They slowly move to approach their prey and when close they suddenly jump to

Marpissa undata (Fig. 18.8h) Males are 8.5-9.5 mm long and females are 10-13 mm long. The body is gray and covered with a mixture of white, gray, and reddish-brown setae. The abdomen has a pale yellow median stripe. Natural habitats include under loose bark, on fences; in the urban environment it occurs on the outside of buildings. This species is distributed in eastern USA, west to Utah.

Plexippus paykulli (Fig. 18.8b, c) Males are about 9.5 mm long and females are about 11 mm long. The female cephalothorax is black anteriorly and brown posteriorly, and has a pale white median stripe; the male cephalothorax has lateral white stripes. The abdomen is black and the medial and lateral stripes are white. This species occurs primarily indoors; outdoor populations are not common. It feeds on a variety of arthropods, including the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) when infestations of this pest are large. This spider has a nearly worldwide distribution.

Plexippus stipes Males and females are about 10 mm long, and the body is light brown. The cephalothorax has two dark brown to black stripes laterally; eyes are distinctly reddish brown. The abdomen has two dark brown to black stripes that are widely separated. Legs are brown with distinct setae. This species occurs indoors in Japan.

Zebra spider, salticus scenicus (Fig. I8.8f) Males are 4-5.5 mm long and females are 4.3-6.4 mm long. Chelicerae of males are elongate and extended nearly horizontally forward. The body is gray with white markings; the abdomen has a white band at the base and two or three white bands on the sides or meeting in the middle to form a longitudinal stripe. This species occurs outdoors on fences, and on walls indoors. It is distributed throughout the USA, and probably other parts of the world.

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