Sawtoothed grain beetle Oryzaephilussurinamensis Fig 56d

Adults are 1.7-3.2 mm long. The body is brown to reddish brown; the pronotum has six projections or teeth on the lateral margin, and it closely resembles O. mercator. The male has a tooth on the hind femur. O. surinamensis is distinguished from O. mercator by having the vertical diameter of the eye smaller than the region of the head directly behind the eye, and the head is rectangular-shaped. Full-grown larvae are about 3 mm long and yellowish white. Eggs are laid singly or in small clusters; hatching occurs at temperatures between 17.5 and 40 °C, but mortality is high at the two limits; fecundity is 45-285 eggs. Hatching is in 3 days at 40 °C and about 16 days at 17.5 °C. Oviposition usually begins during the firstweek ofadultlife and reaches a maximum during week 2 and 3. Larval development is through 2-4 instars and takes about 12 days at 30-35 °C and 75% RH. The upper limitfor development is 37-40 °C. All life stages die when exposed to —18 to —15 °C for 24 h, 52 °C

for i h. At 70% RH, development from egg to adult is about 20 days at32.5 °Cand about 80 days at 20 °C. Larvae construct a pupal chamber of particles of food material; the pupa is usually attached to the substrate. Pupal period is 4 days at 37.5 °C and 16 days at 20 °C. Adult females live for about 19 weeks at 74% RH, but adults live 3 years. There are six or seven generations per year. This species is a cosmopolitan pest of stored grain, cereal products, and dried fruit. O. surinamensis does not attack unbroken grain, but can utilize small lesions on the surface to gain entrance. It often feeds only on the germ, and it can complete development on only the endosperm. Larvae feed on the eggs and dead adults of stored-food moths. Adults have not been seen in flight, but they have been collected at light traps.

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