Squarenecked grain beetle Cathartus quadricollis Fig 56b

Adults are about 2 mm long, and the oval body is shiny, reddish brown, and somewhat flattened. This species is similar in appearance to the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus suri-namenis, but lacks the six projections on the lateral margins. Larval development at 80% RH is 24-26 days at 25 °C, and 20 days or less at30 °C. This species is cosmopolitan and has been found in wheat, rolled barley, rice, dried fruits, cacao, tobacco, and oil palms. In the USA it attacks maize in the field, and is also found in natural populations in the seed pods ofa variety ofplants.

Flat grain beetle, Cryptolestes pusillus (Fig. 5.6c) Adults are 1.4-1.9 mm long, brown, and slightly flattened. Antennae of male are not as long as the body; female antennae are abouthalf as long as the body. Elytra have five parallel ridges. Adults can fly and they will jump. Full-grown larvae are about 2 mm long, and pale white with a dark head; they have a pair of brownish black projections at the posterior end. Eggs are deposited in crevices in the grain or in loose material; they hatch in 8-10 days at 25.5 °C. Larval development is 26-45 days and the pupal stage is 6-9 days at 25.5 °C. Development from egg to adult usually takes 5-9 weeks. The full-grown larva forms a pupal chamber ofa gelatinous substance; food particles adhere to the surface of the chamber. The adultfemale lives about 1 year. This species is cosmopolitan, and itis one of the most common insect pests of stored grain around the world. It does not attack sound or uninjured kernels. It often appears after the attack by other grain pests, and it is frequently found in large numbers with the rice weevil. Larvae will also feed on dead insects.

Rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus Adults are 1.6-2.2 mm long; the body is brown to dark brown and somewhat depressed. The antenna of the male is not more than half as long as the body. The pronotum is broad, and the posterior margin of the head is broad; there are distinctridges on the lateral margins of the head and pronotum; there are four rows of setae on the second elytral interval (seen at magnification). Eggs are deposited singly in crevices or furrows of kernels or grain, or in debris. Hatching is in 4-5 days at 27 °C; fecundity is about 200 eggs. Repeated mating often results in higher egg production. Larvae burrow into kernels of grain, and leave the original kernel to seek other food. Development from egg to adult takes 69-103 days at 27 °C; optimum development is at 32-38 °C and 75% RH. The pupal chamber is a silken envelope covered with food particles and frass, or a loose group of silk strands and food material. Late-stage larvae eat the pupae and prepupae they encounter in infested material. This species is cosmopolitan and found in a variety of food materials. Adults and larvae are usually found in stored wheat, maize, rice, barley, oil seeds, copra, coffee, cassava root, and other foodstuffs, but they also occur under the bark of trees. It can also be found in stored fruits, and is usually the dominant species when the fruit is moldy.

Flour mill beetle, Cryptolestes turcicus Adults are about 2mmlong, and brown to reddish brown; the body is somewhat depressed. Males have antennae extending to aboutfour-fifths the length of the body, and four-segmented hind tarsi. Females have antennae that extend to about half the length of the body, and five-segmented hind tarsi. There are three rows of setae on the second elytral interval (seen atmagnification). This species is a pest of flour and feed mills in temperate regions of the world.

Other Cryptolestes Several species in this genus infest flour and food material. C. pusilloides occurs in eastern Africa, Australia, and South America and feeds on wheat and wheat products, sorghum, corn, rice, barley, almonds, and kibbled locust beans. C. capensis occurs in Europe and South Africa in milling flour; C. ugandae is limited to central Africa, and occurs in maize, millet, peanuts, cassava, cowpeas, and cottonseed.

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