Tanbark borer oak longhorn beetle Phymatodes testaceus

Adults are about 14 mm long, elongate, and somewhat flattened. Adults have two color forms: thorax brownish yellow or dark brown with light brown elytra, and, thorax, abdomen, and legs reddish yellow, and bluish-black elytra. Eggs are laid on the surface and in cracks in the bark ofdead oak trees, and occasionally in hemlock bark. Larvae feed in tunnels within the bark and in the sapwood. Larval development is completed in 1 or 2 years, and full-grown larvae tunnel to the outer layer of sapwood and pupate in an enlarged chamber. Development can be extended when oak wood is dried and used in house construction. This species infests oak flooring, and adults are known to emerge from wood many years after installation. This species is distributed in eastern North America.

Huhu beetle, Prionoplus reticularis Adults are about 36 mm long; the brown front wings have a reticulated pattern ofpale lines. Full-grown larvae are about 50 mm long and yellowish white. Adults are nocturnal and make a distinct buzzing sound while in flight. Eggs are laid under the bark of trees or in the galleries of old insect burrows; hatching occurs in about 21 days. In the urban environment, eggs are deposited on the surface of lumber and in building materials where there is moisture and decay. Larvae excavate large cavities in the sapwood and heartwood, and the galleries are packed with fibrous frass. Development is complete in 2 or 3 years. The full-grown larva tunnels to the surface of the wood and excavates an oval pupal chamber, which is lined with shredded wood and frass. Pupation is in the spring and the pupal period is about 14 days. Adults emerge in November through February through an oval exit hole they cut in the wood surface. This species occurs in New Zealand.

Tile-horned prionus, Prionus imbricornis Adults are 2450 mm long, dark brown, and shiny. The male antennae have 18-22 segments, and the segments overlap. Full-grown larvae are about 60 mm long and yellowish white. Eggs are laid in the soil. Larvae feed in the roots of living trees and shrubs. Larval development is completed inabout3 years. This species is distributed throughout eastern USA. Adults are attracted to outdoor lights at night in mid to late summer.

Broad-necked root borer, Prionus laticollis Adults are 22-45 mm long, dark brown, and shiny. The head is depressed between the eyes, and the antennae of the male are shorter than the body. Full-grown larvae are about 75 mm long, and yellowish white. Eggs are deposited in groups in the soil. Early-stage larvae feed on small tree roots; late-stage larvae feed on the surface of roots, but eventually enter the root. Larval development requires up to 3 years. Full-grown larvae leave infested roots and move close to the soil surface to pupate in oval, compact cells. This species feeds in the roots of trees and shrubs in eastern USA. Larvae are in decaying logs and stumps ofhardwood trees and in buried wood. Adults occur at lights at night.

Pine-stump prionus, Prionus pocularis Adults are about 42 mm long. The body is light brown and shiny; the elytra are densely punctured. Larvae feed in decaying coniferous logs and stumps. Distribution of this species is central, Atlantic coastal, and southern USA. Like other Prionus species, this one occurs at lights at night.

Slender Texas longhorn, Psyrassa texana Adults are 1113 mm long. The body is uniformly brown, slender, and somewhat tapered. The antenna of the male is longer than the body; the head, thorax, and elytra are punctate, and with long setae. Adults are attracted to lights atnight. This species is distributed in southeastern North America.

Flat oak borer, Smodicum cucujiforme Adults are 7-10 mm long, yellowish brown, and shiny; the body is elongate and slightly depressed. Full-grown larvae are about 12 mm long, and have small legs and a white, triangular arch on the underside of the first segment of the thorax. Eggs are laid in cracks and crevices in exposed wood. Larvae excavate extensive galleries in the heartwood of seasoned oak and hickory. Larval development is completed in about 1 year, but in seasoned wood, it extends to 2 or 3 years. The full-grown larva forms a pupal chamber close to the surface, and the adult cuts the exit hole to emerge. Adults are active in July and August. Galleries are about 3 mm diameter, and they are tightly packed with fine granular frass. Stored lumber is frequently infested, and larvae continue to feed after the wood is in use. This species is distributed throughout eastern and central North America.

Rustic borer, Xylotrechus colonus (Fig. 5.5c) Adults are about 14 mm long, light brown to dark brown; the thorax is rounded and uniformly brown. Elytra are marked with irregular bands of yellow and gray. Antennae are not as long as the body, and femora are enlarged.

Eggs are deposited in cracks and irregularities in the bark. Early- and late-stage larvae feed within the bark; there is little feeding on the outer layer of sapwood. Larval development is completed in 1 or 2 years. Adults emerge from firewood stored indoors. This species infests recently killed hardwood trees. It is distributed in southern Canada and eastern USA.

Other cerambycids There are numerous longhorned beetles reported infesting unseasoned structural wood or rustic furniture. Damage from Megacylleneantennata has been reported from structural wood. Hesperophanes cinerus in Europe and H. campestris in Asia infest dry timber. Phymatodes dimidiatus has been recorded in structural timbers made of cedar. In eastern Australia, especially along the coast, the yellow longhorned beetles, Phoracantha recurva and P. semipunctata, are common under the bark of eucalyptus and pines. Damage from these beetles, and sometimes live larvae, occurs in structural wood. In India, the banded cerambycid, Chlorophorusstrobilicola, bores into pine cones and reduces seed production. This species has been recorded in the USA in scented, decorative pinecones used in holiday decorations.

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