Most tineids are small moths; the adult wing span ranges from 12 to 30 mm. They are weak flyers and do not move far from the site of caterpillar feeding. These moths rarely fly to lights and are not active in lighted areas. Caterpillars are scavengers on a variety of dry plant material and fungi. Some tineids feed on animal material, including animal horns and woolen fabrics. Caterpillars of burrowing webworms, Acrolo-phus spp., make a tubular web in the ground and feed on the roots of grasses. Acridotarsa conglomerata occurs in eastern and northern Australia, and its immature stages are probably scavengers in the nests of the termites, Neotermes insularis and Mastotermes. Species in the genera Dryadaula, Nemapogon, and Oinophila are associated with fungi and corks in wine storage. Caterpillars of Dryadaula pactolia have been recorded as attacking the cork in wine bottles stored in cellars. Haptotinea ditella and H. insectella occur in Europe and western Asia; the immature stages ofthese moths feed on stored grains, rice, and groundnuts.

Cork moth, Nemapogon cloacella Adult wing span is 10-17 mm. Wings are mottled brown and white, and the hind wings are gray. Full-grown caterpillars are about 16 mm long, and yellowish white to greenish white. They feed on rotten wood, fences, and tree stumps, and they can also feed on corks in wine bottles in cellars. A closely related species, Nemapogon personella, is a pest of stored grain in Sweden.

European grain moth, corn moth, cork moth, Nemapogon granella (Fig. 11.2g) Adults are 6-7 mm long and their wing span is 8-16 mm. The body is light brown and mottled with silvery white spots. Wings are mottled with black and white, and the front and hind wings have a fringe oflong hairs along the edge. Full-grown caterpillars are 11-16 mm long and yellowish white with a pale yellow to dark brown head. Eggs are laid singly or in small batches directly on food; fecundity is 50200 eggs. Hatching is in 5-30 days, depending on temperature and humidity. Development takes 200-400 days at 18 °C and 80-90% RH. There are two generations per year. In wine cellars, caterpillars infest and feed on exposed corks. Females lay eggs in crevices on the surface of unprotected corks in wine bottles; damp corks are preferred over dry or very wet corks. Corks covered with mold are preferred, and it is uncertain whether N. granella caterpillars actually feed on the cork or the mold. Oviposition is usually on bottles containing red wine, but corks in other bottles are attacked. Caterpillars often leave small amounts of cork frass bound together by silk produced when feeding. Internal tunnels and cavities in the cork generally do notreach the cork bottom, butare restricted to the upper two-thirds. The quality of the wine in the bottle may not be adversely influenced by damage (caterpillars feeding) to the cork. This species feeds in grain and stored cereals, soybeans, garlic, dried fruits, dried mushrooms (Psalliota spp., Boletus edulis), the dryrotfungus, Serpula lacrymans, decayed wood, and pharmaceutical products. Itis thoughtto have originated in the Palearctic region, but now distribution is nearly cosmopolitan in the cool regions of the world, and includes indoor and outdoor populations in Europe, North and South America, Japan, and parts of Africa. Acloselyrelated species, N. variatella,occurs on stored grain in northern Europe.

Poultry-house moth, Niditinea fuscipunctella Adults have a wing span of 10-16 mm. The front wings are yellowish gray and the hind wings are brownish gray. Caterpillars feed on animal material, including skins and bedding material. This species is common in commercial poultry houses, and also in bird nests, where it feeds on feces. In California, population peaks occur in spring and early summer, followed by mid- and late-summer peaks.

Wine cellar moth, Oinophila v-flava Adult wing span is 8.5-10 mm and the wings are slender. The front wings have two irregular, pale brown bands. Caterpillars are scavengers on a variety of plant and animal materials. This species often occurs in wine cellars where it feeds on fungi and wine corks.

Plaster bagworm, Phereoeca uterella (= P. walshingham, P. dubitatrix) Adult wing span is about 12 mm, and the body is dusky brown. Caterpillars remain in portable cases and are usually found crawling on walls, and in stored-food materials. This species is widely distributed in North America.

Webbing clothes moth, Tineola bisselliella (Fig. ll.2f; ll.5g)

Adult wing span is 9-14 mm, and the body is dark yellow to reddish brown. Wings are uniformly gray, without dark spots. Full-grown caterpillars are about 12 mm long, shiny, and yellowish white. Eggs are deposited singly or in groups of two or more between threads on the cloth surface; they are held in place by a gelatinous material. Eggs are laid singly or in groups of about 25. Eggs are usually laid during a period of 2-3 weeks; fecundity is 40-100 eggs, and the maximum may be 221. Hatching occurs in 37 days at 13 °C and in 7 days at33 °C; eggs are notcapable of overwintering or delaying development. Development includes 5-45 stages (molts), and can last from 35 days to 2.5 years. Development on flannel is completed in 63 days at 23.5 °C and 50% RH, and 55 days at 31 °C and 66% RH. At 25 °C the optimum RH is 75%, but most caterpillars can complete development at 30% RH. They survive 67 days at-6.7 °Cto -3.9 °C, and 2idaysat-15 °Cto -12.2 °C. Caterpillars make a cocoon for pupation. The pupal period is 8-10 days in warm weather, and 3-4 weeks in cold weather. Adults are active and can fly relatively long distances. Moths are capable of flying 400-800 m. Males live for 13-79 days, and females for i0-48 days at 20-25 °C. They are not attracted to lights, and gravid females are weak flyers. Clothes moth caterpillars feed on wool clothes, natural carpets, furs, stored wool, and piano felts; in the tropics they infest dried fishmeal and hides. Outdoors the immature stages feed on pollen, hair, feathers, wool, fur, dead insects, and dried animal remains in animal burrows. The caterpillar spins a feeding tunnel or a flat mat ofsilk and feeds below this webbing or in the temporary tube. This species is probably native to Africa, but it is now nearly cosmopolitan in distribution.

Adults uses sonic signals in addition to pheromonal signals for communication. MaleT. bisselliella produce sounds of 27 db, with a base frequency of 40-50 Hz and a harmonic frequency of 80-100 Hz. Sound intensity increases to 55 db when calling males are within 2 cm of females or other males. There is no evidence that females produce sound and no evidence for ultrasonic sound production by either sex.

This species was first described in Russia by Arvid-David Hummel as Tinea bisselliella in 1823. His description was published in the journal Essais Entomologiques, which had only limited distribution. Zeller published a more extensive description in 1852, but dropped the second s in bisselliella. Itwas later moved to the genus Tineola and the misspelling of the name continued until about the mid-i940s.

Case-making clothes moth, Tinea pellionella (Fig. ii.5f)

Adult wing span is ii-i7 mm, and the body is grayish yellow. The front wings have three dark spots on the middle; the hind wings are yellowish brown and without spots. Males are active flyers; females are slow and relatively inactive. Full-grown caterpillars are about 10 mm long and yellowish white. They remain within a cylindrical retreat or case, which is open at both ends, and constructed of silk with particles of debris. Eggs are slightly sticky and have longitudinal ridges; they are laid singly or in small groups; fecundity is 37-48 eggs. Hatching occurs in 4-7 days. Developmentis complete in 68-87 days, and pupation takes place in the case after both ends are sealed. The pupal stage lasts 9-19 days. There are three or four generations per year from caterpillars that are fed on woolen fabric enhanced with 5%yeastatabout26 °Candabout 82% RH. This species is nearly cosmopolitan.

Tapestry moth, Trichophaga tapetzella Adult wing span is 6-i0 mm and the body is yellowish white or gray. The front wing has the basal third black, and the remainder grayish white. Caterpillars make a gallery composed of silk and mixed with fragments of cloth; the gallery may be long and winding.

Other clothes moths In Australia, Tinea pallescentella and Niditineafuscella are usually pests of stored cereals, but will also attack animal fibers. Two case-making species, T. translucens and T. dubiella, are also pests of wool materials. Caterpillars construct portable flattened cases with an opening flap at each end; pupation occurs in the case. T. vastella is distributed throughout Africa, and the immatures infest dried animal material and dried fruits. In Australia, species of Monopis have case-bearing caterpillars that feed on animal fibers, feathers, bird droppings, and dead animal materials. Species of this genus, in both Australia and New Guinea, are ovoviviparous or viviparous. Fertilized eggs are retained in an enlarged genital chamber until the young are ready to hatch.

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